When one acts more akin to an animal seeking pleasure and comfort, which is true to our nature but doesn't have to be the over riding case. Goodness isn't merely given by being biologically human, but the potential to develop into a good person is possible for most if not all.
And what is good as noted earlier, changes by the standards which implicitly organize society as an ideal. So for example, whether our notion of good is that there can be no over riding good, only our equal individual pursuit of what we feel is good being a rather liberal notion of what is good although hiding from the purview the coordinates of it's own basis.
Which isn't simply a belief system/ideology, but is primarily based in the way we actually live our lives in accordance with such an ideal. Where our private lives are to be protected from the public sphere somewhat.
Learning the impact of choices would have to be taught in the sense of actually experiencing the gravity of one's choices. Life experience holds its own lessons, but how far we let people walk into their own mistakes is of concern.
I can teach a child to not touch fire by letting them burn themselves a little bit. But what about letting them experiment with drugs or reckless sex as a young adult and other things where the consequences can be quite severe and permanent. So they have to be able to learn the good life without experiencing the worse as life will probably slap em around anyway.
But I would implore one to retain a principle of hope against cynicism. As such a position is the result of a skepticism that merely destroys, it can not pose anything positive, as it negates. Some try to frame it as liberating, but they simply resolve themselves to a negative result, a problem unsolved.