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  • Personality disorders affect an estimated 9% of Americans.
  • Only a mental-health professional can diagnose a personality disorder, typically in adulthood.
  • Insider compared the behaviors, traits, and causes of the 10 personality disorders in the DSM-5.
According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are 10 personality disorders, which primarily affect a person's sense of self, identity, and relationships.

A person may develop a personality disorder as a coping mechanism for extreme or excessive abuse, abandonment, ridicule, neglect, or other childhood trauma, Anthony Smith, a licensed mental-health counselor with 17 years of experience diagnosing mental-health conditions in the Massachusetts court system, told Insider. Genes can also play a role.

For example, someone with borderline personality disorder may have experienced significant abandonment as a child, like if their parent went to prison for life or consistently failed to provide emotional support. As a result, they internalize the belief that everyone will leave them and, when triggered, act based on that overriding fear, Smith previously told Insider.

In the DSM-5, each of the 10 personality disorders fall under one of three "clusters" because people with them may have similar behaviors, ways of thinking, or predispositions of other mental-health problems, Smith said.

People in cluster A tend to exhibit semipsychotic and anxiety-driven behaviors, while those in cluster B may struggle more with anxiety and mood disorders (like bipolar disorder), impulse-control conditions, eating disorders, and substance abuse, according to Smith. Those in cluster C are also prone to anxiety, depression, and substance abuse.

Only licensed mental-health professionals can diagnose someone with a personality disorder. Experts may start to notice traits and behaviors that could signal a personality disorder when a person is in their teens, but most people aren't diagnosed until adulthood.

Since personality disorders tend to stem from early-in-life relational trauma, people who are diagnosed with one may also be diagnosed with another or exhibit overlapping traits, Smith said. Researchers are still studying the causes of personality disorders and don't have definitive answers.

Causes could include consistent neglect, abuse, or ridicule from a caretaker, being raised by someone who lacks boundaries and accountability or is overindulgent, or being raised by someone who doesn't prioritize relationships. With cluster A disorders, a family history of psychotic disorders could have an effect.

Smith added that personality disorder traits may manifest differently in men versus women.

Here are the potential behaviors, traits, and causes of the 10 personality disorders the DSM-5 recognizes.

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Thoughts? Is this helpful?
 

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A really important topic that belongs on the school curriculum, because we will encounter such people sooner or later – perhaps when looking in the mirror.

N types are known to be attracted rather than repelled by the vagueness of psychiatry. If they enjoy browsing through psychiatric handbooks, they may consider the publications listed below. For the frugal hobbyist, an older edition may suffice.

Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry
10th edition, 2 volumes, 4997 pp., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-45-110047-1
Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry

Kaplan & Sadock's Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry
6th edition, 600 pp., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-49-638693-9

“The Pocket Handbook is a minicompanion to the recently published encyclopedic tenth edition of Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (CTP-X) and each chapter in this book ends with references to the more detailed relevant sections in that textbook.”
Kaplan & Sadock's Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry

Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry
4th edition, 1,200 pp., Oxford University Press, 2019
ISBN: 9780198795551
https://oxfordmedicine.com/view/10.1093/med/9780198795551.001.0001/med-9780198795551

The third edition from 2013 also circulates online.
 

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@tanstaafl28

It was suggested years back to add a sub-forum to discuss personality disorders, being that this is Personality Cafe.
While I believe there was interest, some opposition seemed to think that it would clog things up more than they already are.
I think these are important things to discuss for understanding about people, especially those in crisis due to a malfunction of personality. Only 9% suffer from PDs? Wow, that's low considering everyone has NPD these days.
 

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
A really important topic that belongs on the school curriculum, because we will encounter such people sooner or later – perhaps when looking in the mirror.

N types are known to be attracted rather than repelled by the vagueness of psychiatry. If they enjoy browsing through psychiatric handbooks, they may consider the publications listed below. For the frugal hobbyist, an older edition may suffice.

Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry
10th edition, 2 volumes, 4997 pp., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-45-110047-1
Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry

Kaplan & Sadock's Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry
6th edition, 600 pp., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-49-638693-9

“The Pocket Handbook is a minicompanion to the recently published encyclopedic tenth edition of Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (CTP-X) and each chapter in this book ends with references to the more detailed relevant sections in that textbook.”
Kaplan & Sadock's Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry

Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry
4th edition, 1,200 pp., Oxford University Press, 2019
ISBN: 9780198795551
https://oxfordmedicine.com/view/10.1093/med/9780198795551.001.0001/med-9780198795551

The third edition from 2013 also circulates online.
Yep, the truly sad and scary part is my ISFJ has a dual degree in Psychology and Sociology and she claims she forgot all of it. I bring up Jung, or Maslow, or Gardner, and she looks at me with a blank stare.
 

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I think there are more types of personality disorders? Such as passive-aggressive personality disorder (I think its traits may be shown under covert narcissism), and self-defeating personality disorder (I think the behavior may be shown under avoidant based on the table above). But they aren't in the new DSM for some reason.
 

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Discussion Starter · #7 ·
@tanstaafl28

It was suggested years back to add a sub-forum to discuss personality disorders, being that this is Personality Cafe.
While I believe there was interest, some opposition seemed to think that it would clog things up more than they already are.
I think these are important things to discuss for understanding about people, especially those in crisis due to a malfunction of personality. Only 9% suffer from PDs? Wow, that's low considering everyone has NPD these days.
Well, we did have someone who posted more information about Narcissism than most human beings wanted to know, but it made her happy. Anyway, I am fascinated by psychology. I like this chart because it really gives one the basic distinctions between the different disorders in a way that makes it easier to see how they differ from one another.
 

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Discussion Starter · #8 ·
I think there are more types of personality disorders? Such as passive-aggressive personality disorder (I think its traits may be shown under covert narcissism), and self-defeating personality disorder (I think the behavior may be shown under avoidant based on the table above). But they aren't in the new DSM for some reason.
I don't think it's supposed to be a comprehensive list, I believe it's the big 10.
 

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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
A really important topic that belongs on the school curriculum, because we will encounter such people sooner or later – perhaps when looking in the mirror.

N types are known to be attracted rather than repelled by the vagueness of psychiatry. If they enjoy browsing through psychiatric handbooks, they may consider the publications listed below. For the frugal hobbyist, an older edition may suffice.

Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry
10th edition, 2 volumes, 4997 pp., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-45-110047-1
Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry

Kaplan & Sadock's Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry
6th edition, 600 pp., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-49-638693-9

“The Pocket Handbook is a minicompanion to the recently published encyclopedic tenth edition of Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (CTP-X) and each chapter in this book ends with references to the more detailed relevant sections in that textbook.”
Kaplan & Sadock's Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry

Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry
4th edition, 1,200 pp., Oxford University Press, 2019
ISBN: 9780198795551
https://oxfordmedicine.com/view/10.1093/med/9780198795551.001.0001/med-9780198795551

The third edition from 2013 also circulates online.

Thanks for the helpful reference material. I've long been a fan of your posts.
 

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More academic resources here: Personality Disorder - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Also,

PDs are estimated to be somewhere between 10%~15% of the general population. Among psychiatric patients, the rate can be somewhere between 40% and 60%. I read plenty of academic literature on psychopathology during 2020~2021, and it seems clear that a majority of diagnosed PD patients have Borderline PD. A reason is that BPD can catch public attention due to the possibility of harming others and self-harm. Other PDs, especially Anti-social PD, tend to be diagnosed according to court orders.

For other types of PD (esp. those not less related to public harm, e.g., OCPD), diagnosis can be difficult and I have the impression that it is quite discretionary/subjective. The list of symptoms matters but from what I've read, what matters even more is the degree of impairment. The impairment must be constant and severe enough for a diagnosis. The severity can include, e.g., inability to hold jobs, difficulty in establishing and maintaining social relations, lack of insight (inability to understand the mental illness experienced, etc.), etc. A psychiatrist is less likely to issue a diagnosis if the impairment is not seen as severe.

Different from popular belief, PDs cannot be cured. They are more or less defense mechanisms formed during the process of growing up. Then comes this question - If PDs cannot be cured, then what is the point of diagnosis?

Above all, one of the fundamental questions in psychopathology is, perhaps, what is 'normal'?
 

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Glad I don't have any of those personality disorders. They all sound terrible. 😛
 

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What about me man?

I'm the only one to admit that I have some of these issues.

I mean why do you even start a thead like that if you don't even care about the possible results?

Were you just out fishing who to troll? or what?
 

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What about me man?

I'm the only one to admit that I have some of these issues.

I mean why do you even start a thead like that if you don't even care about the possible results?

Were you just out fishing who to troll? or what?
Actually, I am at work. I got distracted. What's it like to have personality disorders?
 

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So You're just an asshole. Yeah I was kinda getting that vibe from you..
Thanks for reassuring.. (y)
Who, me? Nah. I'm just all over the place.
 
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Actually, I am at work. I got distracted. What's it like to have personality disorders?
No one cares about you. No one recognizes you.

No matter how hard you try you're just an empty shade for a lot of people.

That's how it feels to have personility disorders.

It's not like you don't wanna try. You try as hard as you can.
It doesn't matter. No one recognizes you.

Oh no, they don't mean you're sluggish or bad or anything.
It's just they don't recognize you.
They don't know you're alive.
I don't know how to tell you.
You never even met another person until you were five years old or something..

Your turn.
 

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kewl i got all the colours
 
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"I'm not going to give to others what I never received"

This is so typical btw. This is a recurring thought of mine. :sneaky:

I mean it's not even about ego or something.
I simply can't give you love when I have never recieved love. I can't give you attention, when I have never recieved attention.
I'm low on stock. 😅
It's not like I don't wanna give those things. It's simply I can't give you something that I don't have.
 
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