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(I apologize in advance for these questions and their stupidity)

I have a question about hydrogen as well


how, exactly does metallic hydrogen work? is it stable at earth's atmospheric pressure? if so, how/why does it not just sublimate like its solid form?


second question, what is the theoretical limit to which something can be compressed? since atoms are largely empty space, is there some point at which the electron orbits could become compromised by external pressure?
 

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(I apologize in advance for these questions and their stupidity)

I have a question about hydrogen as well


how, exactly does metallic hydrogen work? is it stable at earth's atmospheric pressure? if so, how/why does it not just sublimate like its solid form?


second question, what is the theoretical limit to which something can be compressed? since atoms are largely empty space, is there some point at which the electron orbits could become compromised by external pressure?
The theoretical limit is being compressed to neutronium (possibly to quark degenerate matter as well, but we actually know of neutron stars, so I'll stick with that.)

I'm not sure what would happen with the degenerate hydrogen though. I'd imagine it would sublimate, but it could just as easily turn to plasma since the electrons aren't attached like on a normal set of atoms.
 

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^much appreciated.

these questions just pop into my head from time to time, glad to know this thread exists.
 

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I remember watching a scene in which Superman squeezes a lump of charcoal, converting it into a diamond. I don't remember which series or movie it was from. Anyway, suppose we were to detonate some C4 explosives inside a really strong chamber (one that's able to withstand the blast) filled with charcoal. Would the pressure and temperature be enough to convert the charcoal into diamond?
 

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I remember watching a scene in which Superman squeezes a lump of charcoal, converting it into a diamond. I don't remember which series or movie it was from. Anyway, suppose we were to detonate some C4 explosives inside a really strong chamber (one that's able to withstand the blast) filled with charcoal. Would the pressure and temperature be enough to convert the charcoal into diamond?
I don't know that you'd get one big diamond but it's possible to get a lot of tiny (like, microscopic) diamonds out of it that way.

For making bigger diamonds like that, powerful hydraulic presses are used - so it would kind of be like being squeezed the way Superman did it.
 

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I remember watching a scene in which Superman squeezes a lump of charcoal, converting it into a diamond. I don't remember which series or movie it was from. Anyway, suppose we were to detonate some C4 explosives inside a really strong chamber (one that's able to withstand the blast) filled with charcoal. Would the pressure and temperature be enough to convert the charcoal into diamond?
No lol. The first thing wrong is that diamond is not the same as charcoal. Charcoal is many things including carbon. Since charcoal is not exclusively carbon, turning it into diamonds is near impossible. Graphite on the other hand COULD feasibly be turned into diamonds so we can talk about that.

Firstly, we need to know how you could turn graphite into diamonds. Graphite structure is hexagonal sheets. Diamond structure is tetrahedral. If you blew up a piece of graphite, it would just scatter the hexagonal sheets and wouldn't restructure them in a tetrahedral pattern. That's why you need intense heat and pressure over a long period of time. There is no way to "flash freeze" a piece of graphite into a diamond.

A funny side note, the hexagonal sheets are actually more stable on earth, so theoretically, if you cut a diamond in a vacuum on earth, it would turn into graphite XD
 

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No lol. The first thing wrong is that diamond is not the same as charcoal. Charcoal is many things including carbon. Since charcoal is not exclusively carbon, turning it into diamonds is near impossible. Graphite on the other hand COULD feasibly be turned into diamonds so we can talk about that.

Firstly, we need to know how you could turn graphite into diamonds. Graphite structure is hexagonal sheets. Diamond structure is tetrahedral. If you blew up a piece of graphite, it would just scatter the hexagonal sheets and wouldn't restructure them in a tetrahedral pattern. That's why you need intense heat and pressure over a long period of time. There is no way to "flash freeze" a piece of graphite into a diamond.

A funny side note, the hexagonal sheets are actually more stable on earth, so theoretically, if you cut a diamond in a vacuum on earth, it would turn into graphite XD
Well, hypothetically, if you exploded it and then rapidly cooled it, you should get an impure chunk and could extract diamond powder from it by putting it in an acid bath.
 

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No lol. The first thing wrong is that diamond is not the same as charcoal. Charcoal is many things including carbon. Since charcoal is not exclusively carbon, turning it into diamonds is near impossible. Graphite on the other hand COULD feasibly be turned into diamonds so we can talk about that.

Firstly, we need to know how you could turn graphite into diamonds. Graphite structure is hexagonal sheets. Diamond structure is tetrahedral. If you blew up a piece of graphite, it would just scatter the hexagonal sheets and wouldn't restructure them in a tetrahedral pattern. That's why you need intense heat and pressure over a long period of time. There is no way to "flash freeze" a piece of graphite into a diamond.

A funny side note, the hexagonal sheets are actually more stable on earth, so theoretically, if you cut a diamond in a vacuum on earth, it would turn into graphite XD
With the explosion technique, you make diamondoids and nanodiamonds, both of which are microscopic leftovers (the rest of it would just be blown up coal or charcoal- which is more pure carbon than you might think, depending on which kind it is), and require some chemical treatment afterwards with yields up to 90%. I'm not sure if C4 is up to the task, though.
 

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Well, hypothetically, if you exploded it and then rapidly cooled it, you should get an impure chunk and could extract diamond powder from it by putting it in an acid bath.
Hypothetically, you could also put it into a really powerful centrifuge and just let everything separate XD. Or instead of exploding it, liquify it, then distill it. That would be quite interesting! :D
 

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With the explosion technique, you make diamondoids and nanodiamonds, both of which are microscopic leftovers (the rest of it would just be blown up coal or charcoal- which is more pure carbon than you might think, depending on which kind it is), and require some chemical treatment afterwards with yields up to 90%. I'm not sure if C4 is up to the task, though.
Microscopic leftovers have a chance of forming with no reaction at all. There is a non-zero probability that if you look at a piece of graphite long enough, it will spontaneously turn into a big diamond. That 90% yield seems really high though. Is there a paper I could read on that? If exploding graphite can get me diamonds with a 90% yield rate, I'm in the wrong business!
 

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Microscopic leftovers have a chance of forming with no reaction at all. There is a non-zero probability that if you look at a piece of graphite long enough, it will spontaneously turn into a big diamond. That 90% yield seems really high though. Is there a paper I could read on that? If exploding graphite can get me diamonds with a 90% yield rate, I'm in the wrong business!
The wiki, in this case.

If I had my second semester senior design project notes on diamondoid synthesis, I could probably go further into it, although I should mention this method wasn't the one we chose (because I didn't see it until a couple years later). Ah, those halcyon pre-wikipedia days, when you actually had to go to a library...
 

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The wiki, in this case.

If I had my second semester senior design project notes on diamondoid synthesis, I could probably go further into it, although I should mention this method wasn't the one we chose (because I didn't see it until a couple years later). Ah, those halcyon pre-wikipedia days, when you actually had to go to a library...
You have given me a new topic to investigate! Although, I don't think DNDs are what the original questions was about :p
 

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The nanodiamonds are only 5 nm. Would it be possible to supersaturate a chamber with carbon atoms by incinerating graphite samples using a laser perhaps (Doc Oc's laser beam setup)? You might get crystals larger than 5 nm that way.
 

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The nanodiamonds are only 5 nm. Would it be possible to supersaturate a chamber with carbon atoms by incinerating graphite samples using a laser perhaps (Doc Oc's laser beam setup)? You might get crystals larger than 5 nm that way.
It's called laser ablation. Laser ablation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

However, Chemical Vapour deposition is the most common industrial technique for this sort of thing as it can give a good deal of control over the products (and it's not just diamonds). Chemical vapor deposition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

I suspect this is what they're talking about in the Wired article (haven't read it).
 

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I was recently on Ferrari Rossa, World's "Fastest" Roller Coaster. It has the indisputable highest acceleration ; 3 g (almost 30m/s^2) ,but after the initial acceleration, it slows down drastically. There was some talk about how it does not count as the FASTEST , it just has the highest acceleration in the beginning and highest speed for a split second. I am confused. Does accelerating to the topmost-speed-possible then slowing down account as fastest, or does the speed need to be consistently high all throughout ?
 

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I was recently on Ferrari Rossa, World's "Fastest" Roller Coaster. It has the highest acceleration ; 3 g (almost 30m/s^2)but after the initial acceleration, it slows down drastically. There was some talk about how it does not count as the FASTEST , it just has the highest acceleration in the beginning and highest speed for a split second. I am confused. Does accelerating to the topmost-speed-possible then slowing down account as fastest, or does the speed need to be consistently high all throughout ?
That depends solely on your definition. When talking about speed, there are 2 major types to talk about; average speed and instantaneous speed. It sounds like this coaster has the highest instantaneous speed but not the fastest average speed. I think the coasters with the fastest average speed AND instantaneous speed can both be called "fastest" but that's just me.
 

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That depends solely on your definition. When talking about speed, there are 2 major types to talk about; average speed and instantaneous speed. It sounds like this coaster has the highest instantaneous speed but not the fastest average speed. I think the coasters with the fastest average speed AND instantaneous speed can both be called "fastest" but that's just me.
ohhh yeah. Thank you :D
I tried to give my thanks but the phone app is being a dick. Lol on that note, does the thanks button not appear on the perc android app, or is it just my phone?
 
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