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People with a severe mental illness are no more likely to be violent than anyone else - unless they abuse drugs or alcohol, a study has suggested.

The relationship between bipolar disorder and violence largely came down to substance abuse, researchers said..
The study compared the behaviour of people with the disorder with their siblings and the wider population.
One of the authors said it was probably more dangerous to walk past a pub at night than a mental health hospital.

The study, led by Oxford University's Department of Psychiatry, examined the lives and behaviour of 3,700 people in Sweden who had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, commonly known as manic depression.
Continue reading the main story

The disorder leads to sudden and unpredictable mood swings which are more severe than the normal ups and downs of life.
The team, led by consultant forensic psychiatrist Dr Seena Fazel, wanted to examine the public perception that there is a link between the disorder and violent crime.

They did this by comparing the experiences of the patients with some 4,000 siblings of people with bipolar disorder - and a further group of 37,000 people selected from the general population.
The research, published in the Archives of General Psychiatry, found that the rates of violent crime among people who were mentally ill and abused substances were no different to those among the general population who abused substances.

In each group, the rate of violent crime was between six and seven times higher than in the general population.

"Most of the relationship between violent crime and serious mental illness can be explained by alcohol and substance abuse," said Dr Fazel.
"That tends to be the thing that mediates the link between violence and the illness."

He said that if the substance abuse was taken away, the illness itself had a "minimal" or non-existent role in violence.
Dr Fazel said: "It's probably more dangerous walking outside a pub on a late night than walking outside a hospital where patients have been released"

The study said that people with bipolar disorder were 10 times more likely to abuse drugs or alcohol than those in the overall population because they tended to turn to substances to counter the effects of their medication or to get other relief from their symptoms.

A previous paper on schizophrenia, written by several of the same researchers, came to similar findings.
The findings of both studies support the view of mental health charities who argue that the stigma attached to illnesses is not justified by medical evidence.

In 2009 the BBC joined forces with mental health charities for a story line in which one of the characters in the Eastenders soap came to terms with bipolar disorder.
Paul Farmer, chief executive of the mental health charity Mind, said the research would reassure people with severe illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

"The link between mental illness and violence is often grossly exaggerated when in fact people with mental health problems are far more likely to be the victims of crime than the perpetrators

"This kind of stigma damages lives," he said.

The charity Sane said it was "surprised" the research appeared to overlook the "realities of severe mental illness".
Its chief executive Marjorie Wallace said: "We accept that alcohol and drug abuse can exacerbate the more acute symptoms and that such abuse is more widely responsible for criminal acts.

"We also accept that the majority of people with mental illness are never violent and the chances of a member of the public being attacked at random extremely rare.

"However, we do not believe it is helpful to underplay the extreme pain, paranoia and denial of symptoms such as command voices which those with psychosis can experience and which may trigger damaging behaviour."

BBC News - Bipolar disorder 'not to blame for violent behaviour'

Dunno about you but did they really have to do a study? Surely its just common sense? Then again i've met enough ignorant fuckers in my time that perhaps yes such studies are unfortunately needed to be published.
 

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I have seen plenty of bipolar people who haven't used drugs that have been violent, and vice versa.

I am having a hard time believing that the only mentally ill people that commit crimes are the ones that use drugs. Mental illness is mental illness. It distorts thinking, which still could potentially lead to violence just as much if not more so than drugs. Not saying mentally ill people are by nature violent, but the nature of the illnesses are that it distorts the way humans naturally think and it could potentionally lead to danger.

It depends on each individuals degree of the illness and their environment. You can't just call all bipolar people who do drugs violent and every bi polar who doesnt do drugs peaceful, its fairly ignorant if you ask me.
 

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I have seen plenty of bipolar people who haven't used drugs that have been violent, and vice versa.

I am having a hard time believing that the only mentally ill people that commit crimes are the ones that use drugs. Mental illness is mental illness. It distorts thinking, which still could potentially lead to violence just as much if not more so than drugs. Not saying mentally ill people are by nature violent, but the nature of the illnesses are that it distorts the way humans naturally think and it could potentionally lead to danger.

It depends on each individuals degree of the illness and their environment. You can't just call all bipolar people who do drugs violent and every bi polar who doesnt do drugs peaceful, its fairly ignorant if you ask me.
You just babbled on about your opinion. That's a studied published in a Medical Journal. You argue with the scientific evidence? ya sure! base it on your own twisted uneducated view of mental illness! Thanks for the insight!
 

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Discussion Starter #4
I have seen plenty of bipolar people who haven't used drugs that have been violent, and vice versa.

I am having a hard time believing that the only mentally ill people that commit crimes are the ones that use drugs. Mental illness is mental illness. It distorts thinking, which still could potentially lead to violence just as much if not more so than drugs. Not saying mentally ill people are by nature violent, but the nature of the illnesses are that it distorts the way humans naturally think and it could potentionally lead to danger.

It depends on each individuals degree of the illness and their environment. You can't just call all bipolar people who do drugs violent and every bi polar who doesnt do drugs peaceful, its fairly ignorant if you ask me.
Usually though such people with disorders tend to be more dangerous to themselves than others, of course it does happen in cases where a disorder could be directly attributed to a incident but also you have the complication of people who may not have mental health issues that are serious enough to compromise their behaviour to the point of committing violence against others but will attempt to use a disorder as a defence if they're hauled into court to answer charges.
 

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You just babbled on about your opinion. That's a studied published in a Medical Journal. You argue with the scientific evidence? ya sure! base it on your own twisted uneducated view of mental illness! Thanks for the insight!
Pipe down.

This is not my opinion. It is a gathering of my own observations from my own drug use, mental illnesses, and my family's drug use and mental illness. Along with my experiences I have had in a psychiatric hospital for a few months.

Yeah and we really went in Iraq to get oil, after all, thats what the newspaper said! And they were actually there!

now to be serious

I don't trust a lot of what studies have to say. Usually the way they are conducted are biased one way or another. (example. One study says milk can increase growth in adults. Later on a few years later the opposite has been found. This happens all the time.) And human error aside, there are many more reasons not to trust these kinds of studies. Most of the time bribery is involved either from the government or someone else in significant power. They will pay the journal to publish what THEY want. You can find this in the news too along with government. Whoever has the money gets to write ALL the answers.

Bottom line there? Don't trust ANYTHING the government tells you or what humans have supposedly "scientifically proven" Even if it is "scientifically proven" the mind is soooooo much more complex than to lead to such a simple answer like:

bipolar + drugs = violence

The equation is more like this

bipolar + mood at the time + environment they are in + people they are around + comfort level + memories + tons of more shit + possibility of drug intoxication= violence

You can't sum it up so fast and say drugs are the cause of the violence in mentally ill people. It is ignorant and is very obviously wrong. I know it is because I have been around mentally ill people my entire life. Including myself.

I have a bipolar mother and father and brother, so don't even dare tell me that I don't know what mental illness is. I have stared at it in the eye and have suffered mental illnesses myself. I suffer severe depressive disorder and acute schizophrenia along with paranoia and high anxiety. In college I am double majoring in Film and Photo, and I have a minor in Psychology. These are common topics of discussion. We have discussed that drugs can potentionally increase the violence potential in a mentally ill person, but DEFINE IT? I don't think so.

I have mental illnesses and I use marijuana on a pretty frequent basis, along with the use of psychedelics like Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, Psilocybin, Mescaline. once a year. I am by nature a peaceful down to earth person. I thought drugs were supposed to make us evil? What ever happened to the drugs making me turn into a bloodthirsty raging monster?

Drugs dont instantly mean violence. And neither does mental illness. A combo of the two (depending on the drug) can turn into a very fuckin' bad situation, but it doesn't mean that bipolar people's violent behavior is the DIRECT cause of the violence.

Saying ALL bipolars that do drugs are violent and that ALL bipolars tat don't do drugs are peaceful, is, I am sorry, rather ridiculous and obviously false. I have been around these people tons of times. I have been in a psychiatric hospital myself. I have been around these people extensively, and an article telling me that these people are being violent and aggressive is due to them using drugs? NO WAY. These kids never touched a THING. These kids were more violent than me and I have touched pretty much every hallucinogen known to man, and I was the least aggressive person in the entire group.

Now if the bipolar person were doing drugs while he is on a medication for his bipolar, thats a TOTALLY different story. Medicines can interact with each other negatively. Lithium for example can intensify the effects of psychoactive drugs like LSD. Most people can potentially see the problems that can arise here.
 

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Usually though such people with disorders tend to be more dangerous to themselves than others, of course it does happen in cases where a disorder could be directly attributed to a incident but also you have the complication of people who may not have mental health issues that are serious enough to compromise their behaviour to the point of committing violence against others but will attempt to use a disorder as a defence if they're hauled into court to answer charges.

They are a danger to themselves, yes, but to others also.

My family is swarming with bipolar people. My brother is one of these people. He was violent towards me and my mother during several of his psychotic episodes.

The thing with bipolar is that their aggressive behavior, for the most part at least, is completely unintentional and random. They don't ask to be set off. They just do, and when they do, they can become incredibly aggressive. My brother broke my arm and knocked my mother out on his most severe psychotic episode.

No drugs were involved, except for his bipolar medication, Lithium. I doubt anyone would be willing to say his bipolar medication was what set him off. But after all, its all drugs fault, right? Not mental illness. My brother at this time at least used NO drugs of any kind. It wasn't till later, still being bipolar, he tried marijuana, which, if anything, slowed down the frequency of his manic attacks, due to the nature of a marijuana intoxication. Now if it were a COCAINE intoxication, yeah, I am pretty sure that will up the chances of violent behavior happening.

I also hate how the article uses the term "DRUGS." That is too broad. Drugs can be as broad as talking about tylenol, marijuana, crystal meth, LSD, sugar, caffeine, etc. They are all so incredibly different and all have unbelieveably different effects on the body AND mind. What kind of drugs set them off? You can't generalize all drugs being the cause of violent behavior. Prehaps CERTAIN drugs, but all? No way. Stimulants do very much so potentially increase violent behavior in people, but that is the nature of the drug to speed people up and more active. Combine that with a raging bipolar and you've got yourself some violence. Combine a bipolar person with marijuana or tylenol and I doubt they will be going out to beat someones ass anytime soon.

Trust me. They can be VERY dangerous to others if their mania is set off.

The nature of bipolar are SEVERE mood swings from happy to VERY PISSED. What happens when people get overly pissed? Violence can occur, whether drugs are related or not.
 
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They are a danger to themselves, yes, but to others also.

My family is swarming with bipolar people. My brother is one of these people. He was violent towards me and my mother during several of his psychotic episodes.

The thing with bipolar is that their aggressive behavior, for the most part at least, is completely unintentional and random. They don't ask to be set off. They just do, and when they do, they can become incredibly aggressive. My brother broke my arm and knocked my mother out on his most severe psychotic episode.

No drugs were involved, except for his bipolar medication, Lithium. I doubt anyone would be willing to say his bipolar medication was what set him off. But after all, its all drugs fault, right? Not mental illness. My brother at this time at least used NO drugs of any kind. It wasn't till later, still being bipolar, he tried marijuana, which, if anything, slowed down the frequency of his manic attacks, due to the nature of a marijuana intoxication. Now if it were a COCAINE intoxication, yeah, I am pretty sure that will up the chances of violent behavior happening.

I also hate how the article uses the term "DRUGS." That is too broad. Drugs can be as broad as talking about tylenol, marijuana, crystal meth, LSD, sugar, caffeine, etc. They are all so incredibly different and all have unbelieveably different effects on the body AND mind. What kind of drugs set them off? You can't generalize all drugs being the cause of violent behavior. Prehaps CERTAIN drugs, but all? No way. Stimulants do very much so potentially increase violent behavior in people, but that is the nature of the drug to speed people up and more active. Combine that with a raging bipolar and you've got yourself some violence. Combine a bipolar person with marijuana or tylenol and I doubt they will be going out to beat someones ass anytime soon.

Trust me. They can be VERY dangerous to others if their mania is set off.

The nature of bipolar are SEVERE mood swings from happy to VERY PISSED. What happens when people get overly pissed? Violence can occur, whether drugs are related or not.
As you say, too many variables to make neat categorizing, bi-polar as i'm sure you know also shares symptoms with schizophrenia and theres even a research paper that claims both disorders originate from the same gene, that makes me wonder about how many (however small it is) get misdiagnosed either way.

Also i wonder why bi-polar has been singled out for research, as i mentioned schizophrenia that disorder is particularly misunderstood in a number of ways i.e people think its a personality disorder (when its a psychotic one) as well that schizophrenia automatically predisposes the sufferer to violence (i've seen a fair few newspaper reports claiming that a person who committed a violent crime(s) suffered with schizophrenia and most likely stopped taking their medication), of course its not usually that clear cut and often these types of reports can't find the reason for the incidents and so zoom in on the disorder.

Unfortunately my guess regarding why the report was so broad is simply because if they broadcast everything they got people get bored when trying to absorb the information and so they go for a simple generalized message.
 

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For the record, I'm a bipolar sufferer who's never touched non-perscription drugs and who's been drunk a grand total of twice in his life. In my manic moments I've never come close to violence, but, yeah, I can't deny that I've caused others problems. Two notable cases saw me provoke others into beating and strangling me until they realized that I wasn't resisting. It also occasionally leads me to an urge to destroy public property, but I have yet to act on that. Really, the big urge that it was pushing me towards before I got medicated a few years ago was for me to give away my possessions and live life homeless. But never any violence. Maybe it's the ENFP empathy that won't turn off. Maybe it's the enneagram 9w1 which tugs me at away the last second from chasing conflict. Maybe it's my complex, alternative religious convictions. Either way, there's not even an inkling of violence in me, so I appreciate I appreciate what the study is trying to do.

I can't say exactly how much misconception of bipolar disorder exists in the world, as I've only told a handful of people in my life, but I do have an anecdote that shows how bad it can get. Last year I was living in an apartment in a large South American city, with my landlady, her mid-20s daughter, myself and another ****** traveler (who was out of town for the events that follow). All I knew about the daughter is that she would fly into tantrums at her mother about not wanting to see her psychologist. She was quiet and seemed suspicious of my ENFPness. But her mother and I got along great! One day while I was out, the landlady went snooping through my room and found my lithium. Her immediate reaction was that I must have the potential to be dangerous. When I got back to the apartment from work that night, she gave me 3 hours to vacate the apartment and would not even compensate me any of the month's rent that I had already paid (it was the first week of the month). I had been living there for 3 months. What could I do? I was a foreigner. I had no rights. I started packing. During this time the daughter inexplicably came running at me, crying and flailing, asking me why I was plotting to kill her. By that point I had to hold back my laughter.

Anyway, I had reliable friends in the city, so, besides the financial burden, it wasn't really a big deal---just another display of dukkha... something I'm always prepared for. But yeah, the second they saw the lithium, I was persona non grata. Imagine how many worse things have happened to other bipolar sufferers over this assumption that bipolar = violent. :sad:
 

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For the record, I'm a bipolar sufferer who's never touched non-perscription drugs and who's been drunk a grand total of twice in his life. In my manic moments I've never come close to violence, but, yeah, I can't deny that I've caused others problems. Two notable cases saw me provoke others into beating and strangling me until they realized that I wasn't resisting. It also occasionally leads me to an urge to destroy public property, but I have yet to act on that. Really, the big urge that it was pushing me towards before I got medicated a few years ago was for me to give away my possessions and live life homeless. But never any violence. Maybe it's the ENFP empathy that won't turn off. Maybe it's the enneagram 9w1 which tugs me at away the last second from chasing conflict. Maybe it's my complex, alternative religious convictions. Either way, there's not even an inkling of violence in me, so I appreciate I appreciate what the study is trying to do.

I can't say exactly how much misconception of bipolar disorder exists in the world, as I've only told a handful of people in my life, but I do have an anecdote that shows how bad it can get. Last year I was living in an apartment in a large South American city, with my landlady, her mid-20s daughter, myself and another ****** traveler (who was out of town for the events that follow). All I knew about the daughter is that she would fly into tantrums at her mother about not wanting to see her psychologist. She was quiet and seemed suspicious of my ENFPness. But her mother and I got along great! One day while I was out, the landlady went snooping through my room and found my lithium. Her immediate reaction was that I must have the potential to be dangerous. When I got back to the apartment from work that night, she gave me 3 hours to vacate the apartment and would not even compensate me any of the month's rent that I had already paid (it was the first week of the month). I had been living there for 3 months. What could I do? I was a foreigner. I had no rights. I started packing. During this time the daughter inexplicably came running at me, crying and flailing, asking me why I was plotting to kill her. By that point I had to hold back my laughter.

Anyway, I had reliable friends in the city, so, besides the financial burden, it wasn't really a big deal---just another display of dukkha... something I'm always prepared for. But yeah, the second they saw the lithium, I was persona non grata. Imagine how many worse things have happened to other bipolar sufferers over this assumption that bipolar = violent. :sad:
Thats quite an event you describe there essay, sorry to be blunt but that landlady is an utter bitch, glad you had reliable friends to help you out. Question for you, what causes the stigmatization for you? The label of bi-polar or the lithium medication?
 

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Thats quite an event you describe there essay, sorry to be blunt but that landlady is an utter bitch, glad you had reliable friends to help you out. Question for you, what causes the stigmatization for you? The label of bi-polar or the lithium medication?
I'm not really sure. I mean, before I was diagnosed, lithium was just something to memorize for chemistry class, and a song by Kurt Cobain. This "bitch" :)laughing:) must have gone on some online research run, and who knows what the first results for "litio" are on Spanish Google---that or she had already run the gauntlet of psychiatric drugs with her daughter, who clearly had problems of her own.

Really, it all just looks like the stigmatization is complicated, and different people glean different opinions from our various medias and what not. I mean, I have no clue how, say, an American news network portrays the condition, but the British seem to have a nice bipolar ambassador in Stephen Fry.
 
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I'm not really sure. I mean, before I was diagnosed, lithium was just something to memorize for chemistry class, and a song by Kurt Cobain. This "bitch" :)laughing:) must have gone on some online research run, and who knows what the first results for "litio" are on Spanish Google---that or she had already run the gauntlet of psychiatric drugs with her daughter, who clearly had problems of her own.

Really, it all just looks like the stigmatization is complicated, and different people glean different opinions from our various medias and what not. I mean, I have no clue how, say, an American news network portrays the condition, but the British seem to have a nice bipolar ambassador in Stephen Fry.
Ah yes Stephen Fry, watched a documentary where he talked about the disorder, how it affected him and he talked to other people who were diagnosed, a good show. Reason i asked as usually when i think of stigmatization i usually associate it with a label but your post offered the thought of how medication can also cause stigmatization, food for thought.

For me i have never been labelled with anything other than the general terms, depression, anxiety and anger management issues, apparently some mental health professionals in this country (Britain) have talked about treating the symptoms and not applying labels to their patients, one point that was made that your post also touched upon is that applying a label to someone compromises their individuality, you become defined by the disorder e.g. 'This patient is a schizophrenic', as opposed to 'this patient displays depression, anxiety in social situations etc'.

My psychiatrist never diagnosed me with a disorder so perhaps he's subscribed to the concentrate on the symptoms method, that or i displayed so many symptoms he couldn't decide which disorders i have :unsure:
 

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Ah yes Stephen Fry, watched a documentary where he talked about the disorder, how it affected him and he talked to other people who were diagnosed, a good show. Reason i asked as usually when i think of stigmatization i usually associate it with a label but your post offered the thought of how medication can also cause stigmatization, food for thought.

For me i have never been labelled with anything other than the general terms, depression, anxiety and anger management issues, apparently some mental health professionals in this country (Britain) have talked about treating the symptoms and not applying labels to their patients, one point that was made that your post also touched upon is that applying a label to someone compromises their individuality, you become defined by the disorder e.g. 'This patient is a schizophrenic', as opposed to 'this patient displays depression, anxiety in social situations etc'.

My psychiatrist never diagnosed me with a disorder so perhaps he's subscribed to the concentrate on the symptoms method, that or i displayed so many symptoms he couldn't decide which disorders i have :unsure:
Ah cool. I've never really heard of that approach. I don't think the label has much of a negative effect on me though. If I didn't look at it as a lifelong affliction, who knows how serious my idealism would let me take it. I mean, I'm at a pretty stable, symptomless point in my life now. Would someone like your doctor then recommend that I start working towards getting off the medication?

How about longterm lifestyle-based treatment approaches like STEP, where the patient is trained to add a degree of regularity to his/her life with regular activities, regularized sleep, avoiding drugs/alcohol, etc.... Or maybe you've heard the idea of mediation thrown around as another tool in the toolbox?
 
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Ah cool. I've never really heard of that approach. I don't think the label has much of a negative effect on me though. If I didn't look at it as a lifelong affliction, who knows how serious my idealism would let me take it. I mean, I'm at a pretty stable, symptomless point in my life now. Would someone like your doctor then recommend that I start working towards getting off the medication?

How about longterm lifestyle-based treatment approaches like STEP, where the patient is trained to add a degree of regularity to his/her life with regular activities, regularized sleep, avoiding drugs/alcohol, etc.... Or maybe you've heard the idea of mediation thrown around as another tool in the toolbox?
It depends on the severity of your symptoms and what the consequences of stopping your medication would have, however my psychiatrist tried to get me on medication but given my experiences with it (hallucinations and actually exacerbated my depressed mood leading to take a overdose with the medication) no way am i ever taking any again. I would say he would most likely tell you to continue, maybe reduce the dosage to see if coming off is possible.

Aye i've heard of all of them, if it works for people then i'm all for it, unfortunately in my country theres been an explosion in mental health problems especially among the young and there isn't enough services so often people are medicated while they wait to get referred to some form of therapy.
 

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There has been at least one publicized finding that schizophrenics also in fact aren't particularly prone to violence. Reading between the lines and judging from experiences, bipolar people probably are the bigger threat, but mostly to themselves and intimates who get in the way.
 

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People with a severe mental illness are no more likely to be violent than anyone else - unless they abuse drugs or alcohol, a study has suggested.

The relationship between bipolar disorder and violence largely came down to substance abuse, researchers said..
The study compared the behaviour of people with the disorder with their siblings and the wider population.
One of the authors said it was probably more dangerous to walk past a pub at night than a mental health hospital.

The study, led by Oxford University's Department of Psychiatry, examined the lives and behaviour of 3,700 people in Sweden who had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, commonly known as manic depression.
Continue reading the main story

The disorder leads to sudden and unpredictable mood swings which are more severe than the normal ups and downs of life.
The team, led by consultant forensic psychiatrist Dr Seena Fazel, wanted to examine the public perception that there is a link between the disorder and violent crime.

They did this by comparing the experiences of the patients with some 4,000 siblings of people with bipolar disorder - and a further group of 37,000 people selected from the general population.
The research, published in the Archives of General Psychiatry, found that the rates of violent crime among people who were mentally ill and abused substances were no different to those among the general population who abused substances.

In each group, the rate of violent crime was between six and seven times higher than in the general population.

"Most of the relationship between violent crime and serious mental illness can be explained by alcohol and substance abuse," said Dr Fazel.
"That tends to be the thing that mediates the link between violence and the illness."

He said that if the substance abuse was taken away, the illness itself had a "minimal" or non-existent role in violence.
Dr Fazel said: "It's probably more dangerous walking outside a pub on a late night than walking outside a hospital where patients have been released"

The study said that people with bipolar disorder were 10 times more likely to abuse drugs or alcohol than those in the overall population because they tended to turn to substances to counter the effects of their medication or to get other relief from their symptoms.

A previous paper on schizophrenia, written by several of the same researchers, came to similar findings.
The findings of both studies support the view of mental health charities who argue that the stigma attached to illnesses is not justified by medical evidence.

In 2009 the BBC joined forces with mental health charities for a story line in which one of the characters in the Eastenders soap came to terms with bipolar disorder.
Paul Farmer, chief executive of the mental health charity Mind, said the research would reassure people with severe illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

"The link between mental illness and violence is often grossly exaggerated when in fact people with mental health problems are far more likely to be the victims of crime than the perpetrators

"This kind of stigma damages lives," he said.

The charity Sane said it was "surprised" the research appeared to overlook the "realities of severe mental illness".
Its chief executive Marjorie Wallace said: "We accept that alcohol and drug abuse can exacerbate the more acute symptoms and that such abuse is more widely responsible for criminal acts.

"We also accept that the majority of people with mental illness are never violent and the chances of a member of the public being attacked at random extremely rare.

"However, we do not believe it is helpful to underplay the extreme pain, paranoia and denial of symptoms such as command voices which those with psychosis can experience and which may trigger damaging behaviour."

BBC News - Bipolar disorder 'not to blame for violent behaviour'

Dunno about you but did they really have to do a study? Surely its just common sense? Then again i've met enough ignorant fuckers in my time that perhaps yes such studies are unfortunately needed to be published.

of course, bipolar cannot be blamed for everything
 
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