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"Dario Nardi recently published a book called Neuroscience of Personality. It contains his insights based on put a 20 sensor EEG on 60 college students of various types, and then having them perform various activities.

Since it includes both qualitative and quantitive research results, it's probably not definitive proof of type or type dynamics. Still, I think his approach is interesting and his book helps shed light on how type relates to activity in the neocortex."

Extraverted Sensing (Se)
Se types:
Show a "tennis hop" brain pattern.
Easily go "in the zone" in a crisis situation.
Quickly integrate body and sensory information.
Easily bored and need external stimulation.
Focus on literal or common interpretations.
Favor details that are dramatic or in motion.

The "tennis hop" brain pattern is one in which all regions of neocortex out low amplitude and out of sync. This is an effective state that requires little energy while the shifting frequencies allow the brain to quickly direct whichever regions are needed for a surprise, incoming task.

Introverted Sensing (Si)

Si types:
Brain activity reflects their background, training, and job expertise.
Get "in the zone" when reviewing past events.
Tend towards rote memorization, repetition, and in-depth reviews of daily events—all habits that help them burn new neural pathways.
Good at recalling information without a context and recalling kinship data.
Favor T5, which processes social feedback and T6, that helps us consider the future.

So Si seems to lead to reinforcement and specialization over time. ISTJs and ISFJs are both visual (favor O1 and/or O2). ISxJs favor Fp2 over Fp1, while ESxJs do the opposite.



Extraverted Intuiting (Ne)

Ne types:
Often show a "Christmas Tree" pattern.
Often experience creative highs.
Provide fast, creative responses (sometimes too creative)
Find it difficult to get "in the zone," and can do so only after practicing and internalizing an activity over weeks, months, or years.
Use regions that support imagination.

A "Christmas Tree" pattern is one in which the neocortex is active all over, each region is of high amplitude and out-of-sync with others. This pattern indicates cross-contextual thinking. This pattern is also very energy intensive, and may produce distractions and contradictions.


Introverted Intuiting (Ni)

Ni Types:
Show a whole brain, zen-like pattern
Show this pattern when they attack an unfamiliar, novel pattern.
Their zen state works best when focusing on a single question, without distraction.
Enter the zen state when ask to envision the future.
Usually benefit from a sensory focus

Their whole-brain, zen-like pattern occurs when all regions of the neocortex are in sync and dominated by brain waves that are medium-low frequency and very high-amplitude. Other types only show this pattern when they engage in their specific area of expertise, unlike Ni-ers, who also show it when tackling a new problem.

ENxJs usually benefit from a physical or sensory focus. NJs tend to be generalists compared to their SJs cousins.


Extraverted Thinking (Te)

Te types:
Show most efficient use of mental energy as they rely on evidence-based decision-making.
Rely on T3, O1, C3 and Fp1. Tend to use other areas very little, even on tasks that would normally invoke them.
Rely on measurably sensory information
Focus on goals and stimulated by task completion and error correction.
Tend to move to action before accurate or what-if processing, so quick efficiency can become a pitfall.
Show high activity in F8, which handles deeply felt personal values, often expressed negatively.
Female Te types show more diverse brain activity and are more responsive to social feedback.

IXTJs are more visual, attentive to tone of voice, and focus on implementation detail over quick decision-making. ESTJS attend more to details, are more open to brainstorming, and listen intently to authority figures. ENTJs can enter a creative mode similar to INTJs.


Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Ti types:
Show high use of four regions that afford complex logical reasoning: F3, F4, P3, P4
Use F3 to linearly derive solutions. (highest for ESTPs followed by INTPs)
Use F4 to categorize and define concepts. (highest for INTPs, followed by ESTPs)
Use P3 to integrate visual-kinesthetic data. (highest for ISTPs then ENTPs)
Use P4 to holistically weigh numerous pros and cons of many uncertain or risky factors. (highest for ENTPs followed by ISTPs)
Above regions are located away from direct sensory contact, so have a "deep" or "detached" quality.
Tend to enter a dissociated state when arguing or meeting someone new. In this state, their neocortex shuts out raw emotions in order to enjoy objectivity.
Least interested in listening.
Engage the above regions + Fp1 and Fp2 when examining a topic from multiple angles and integrating the angles into a coherent way.

INTPs are likely to quickly stop listening as they assess the relevance of what others are saying.


Extraverted Feeling (Fe)

Fe types:
Focus on social responsibility.
Stimulated by communicating their explanations and decisions.
Use Fp1 to suppress emotional impulses from deep in the brain in favor of sophisticated cognitive responses.
Use Fp2 less, so may sometimes suddenly switch from highly composed to very angry.
Use F5 a lot, which helps them adjust to social feedback.

ExFJs show high activity in T3, but least activity in visual regions O1 and O2. ESFJs are more left-brained, high in C3 and F7. ENFJs are might right-brained, showing high activity in F4 and T4.


Introverted Feeling

Fi types:
Are consummate listeners who listen in a holistic way.
INFPs can deeply listen for up to 10 minutes at a time, ISFPs listen briefly and then move to action.
Show high activity in T3 and T4, which handle language.
Carefully compose their own speech, attending to both content and delivery.
Show high activity in F8, and are stimulated by rankings of importance.
Show the least activity in interior regions that aid logic.
Rely on left-brained (Fp1) decision making.

INFPs may get to the core of a person's psychology by listening for so long. INFPs are less likely to defend their own views or take action, though when they stop listening, region Fp1 becomes very active as they make a strong (and perhaps final) decision.

ISFPs are attentive when others withhold information (like social feedback).

I actually found this thread on another site and wanted to see what other people thought
 

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Seems to be a good scientific model IMO, but definitely disproves Lenore's ideas. Also there are the limitations of EEG not being able to see deep into the brain, so there might be other stuff going on. But it all seems pretty convincing. I have his book.
Yeah, EEG data is pretty shallow and low-resolution. Especially with the Feeling functions (from the descriptions above, at least), you get the sense that there could be a lot more happening deeper in the brain. Does the book mention anything about sample sizes for the individual lead functions in the study? And would you recommend the book as a whole?
 

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MOTM August 2012
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Yeah, EEG data is pretty shallow and low-resolution. Especially with the Feeling functions (from the descriptions above, at least), you get the sense that there could be a lot more happening deeper in the brain. Does the book mention anything about sample sizes for the individual lead functions in the study? And would you recommend the book as a whole?
Yea its a great book. His writing is very insightful and the sample sizes were not huge, I don't remember how big, but probably no more than a hundred people. I think he goes more into the specifics on this video of a seminar he presented at Google last summer.

 

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I think his study is fantastic and has a lot of logically consistent results! For instance, just like in Jung's original theory, Fi and Ti are showing a ton of polar opposite tendencies via the data trends Nardi found with the EEG data:

e.g. INTPs are likely to quickly stop listening as they assess the relevance of what others are saying./Least interested in listening. VS. INFPs may get to the core of a person's psychology by listening for so long./Are consummate listeners who listen in a holistic way.

This is very interesting to me. It does seem like most of the INFPs I know are very attentive to people/notice subtle observations about people, and after talking with one INFP friend recently, it did stand out to me that she takes the time to listen to everything you say and respond to it all (pretty much all of my INFP friends in the past were like this also) - as for INTPs on the other hand, lol, yeah, they tend to discount "irrelevant" information to their logical understanding very quickly, my INTP twin being one example, especially if you start talking feelings with them, they tend to ignore your POV pretty quickly and only go by what "makes sense" to them - I've definitely found them to be the least likely people around to consider others' points of view in making decisions, hands down (I don't think that there's anything inherently wrong with this generally, but it definitely stands out to me about them as interesting to say the least). I've also noticed that they tend to be pretty comfortable about interrupting you if they think what you're saying is irrelevant to or incompatible with how something makes sense to them. I noticed that if they aren't interested in what you're saying to them, they tend to shut you out, while Fi doms almost always try to make an effort to listen to you no matter what you're saying.

Rely on left-brained (Fp1) decision making.
VERY fascinating that Nardi's study found evidence that Fi is actually a left-brained function! That throws basically all of the speculation about Fi doms/auxes being the most "right-brained" types out the window.

Use F3 to linearly derive solutions. (highest for ESTPs followed by INTPs)
Interesting that Ti is implied to be "linear" here, while Fi, it's polar opposite, is described as "wholistic." So, I guess Ti is the most analytical function (breaks everything down hardcore in a logically consistent fashion), while Fi has a way of synthesizing?

Carefully compose their own speech, attending to both content and delivery.
Hmm...the INFP writer stereotype here!

Tend to enter a dissociated state when arguing or meeting someone new.
I think I've actually seen this with some Ti heavy types I know, namely my INTP friend - when I first met her, she was pretty much just standing there unresponsive, lol, like we weren't even there. Then, after that, we were instantly just best friends.

I haven't been able to stop thinking about this stuff from the study since I first saw it. It's the most intriguing MBTI-related topic to date imo! Definitely not the low quality, overly stereotypical crap you get on the internet.
 

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[Se]
The "tennis hop" brain pattern is one in which all regions of neocortex out low amplitude and out of sync. This is an effective state that requires little energy while the shifting frequencies allow the brain to quickly direct whichever regions are needed for a surprise, incoming task.
this really gives a mental model that fits with the (assumed) reality of how a dom-Se is. the "idling aspect" really gives birth to the potential for spontaneity--a car can more easily take a 90 degree turn if it's idling, waiting for incoming information than it can if it's already committed to a hundred mile an hour drag race.

it's also interesting to the see links in behavior in the Ti/Fe and Te/Fi descriptions correlate with finding not only those combinations within types, but also the behavior itself!

[Te/Fi]
Show high activity in F8, which handles deeply felt personal values, often expressed negatively.
[Ti+Fe]
Above regions are located away from direct sensory contact, so have a "deep" or "detached" quality.
Tend to enter a dissociated state when arguing or meeting someone new. In this state, their neocortex shuts out raw emotions in order to enjoy objectivity.
&
suppress emotional impulses from deep in the brain in favor of sophisticated cognitive responses.
this is incredibly interesting. thanks @dimane

edit: not to forget the fact that this information allows for the mental model of types to match that of the reality of a type.
 

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Good at recalling information without a context and recalling kinship data.
This is mighty interesting for Si, because once again, I think I've noticed this about them recently, due to the fact that I'm extremely bad at recalling information without a context (and Si is my 8th function...hmm). I guess the kinship data part has to do with connecting info to something else it reminds them of?
 

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Discussion Starter #9 (Edited)
Well in his book he says Ti reason from mutiple angles to solve a problem.
Lenore thomsons description of the functions are consistent with his reasearch other than hemisphere placement
supposedly all Sensors have good memory while Ns not so much
 

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he says Ti reason from mutiple angles to solve a problem.
this is why i've always balked at the idea that Ti is "counter" to Ni. if Ni is unconsciously reinterpreting information, or an Ni-user has the inclination to view something from multiple angles until one notices that all angles have a "truth" and then to assimilate all the "truths" or different views into a singular perspective as an intake of information (taking "tangents" and combining them into a whole circle that runs back into itself, and this leads to an understanding that is exceedingly subjective, although not always untrue--in other words: the A in reality is really AB in my head, but they mean the same thing, this just allows me to see the reality of A), wouldn't this actually harmonize with Ti?

if Ti is already seeking to reason from multiple angles then wouldn't it actually help to have perspective that is willing to change and flip, to provide the Ji with "food of sorts", to accommodate the feedback from the judging function?

(may be off topic, but this has been in my mind for awhile).

edit: bleh, i'm sure i didn't make myself clear, and i doubt i really got across what i was trying to. feel free to ignore this :p.
 

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i try to puzzle my infj together :redface:
 
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this is why i've always balked at the idea that Ti is "counter" to Ni. if Ni is unconsciously reinterpreting information, or an Ni-user has the inclination to view something from multiple angles until one notices that all angles have a "truth" and then to assimilate all the "truths" or different views into a singular perspective as an intake of information (taking "tangents" and combining them into a whole circle that runs back into itself, and this leads to an understanding that is exceedingly subjective, although not always untrue--in other words: the A in reality is really AB in my head, but they mean the same thing, this just allows me to see the reality of A), wouldn't this actually harmonize with Ti?

if Ti is already seeking to reason from multiple angles then wouldn't it actually help to have perspective that is willing to change and flip, to provide the Ji with "food of sorts", to accommodate the feedback from the judging function?

(may be off topic, but this has been in my mind for awhile).

edit: bleh, i'm sure i didn't make myself clear, and i doubt i really got across what i was trying to. feel free to ignore this :p.
Yea I actually think that much of what we associate with Ni is really Thinking. Ni, like all intuition really refers to having an inclination or a sixth-sense about something. Sometimes I think we over-associate the function. Because really 'truth' is a factor of judgment. There is Feeling or evaluative truth and Thinking or logical truth. (We really notice then when we decide to hold back on telling someone the truth or distort actual facts to make a more salient point - that's more Feeling truth). But that's not intuition. If anything Ni would help provide a framework or a perspective from which Thinking or Feeling could work from (and in the Introverted expression it would be individual and subjective - the Ni-dom might have a hunch about say the significance of something, but significance on its own is still Feeling judgment, Ni is just the inner feeling that says "maybe there's something worth looking at from the standpoint of significance.")

A lot of these Intuition stereotypes are dicey because they don't hold up across the types. An INxJ might identify with a description of Ni, but a ISTP or ISFP should be able to identify with it too. Even as ESxP might have some sense of the function as it is described (Se is my inferior function but I understand it, even if its not my dominant preference). It seems with a lot of these definitions out there, they are sort of built around confirmation bias. And Nardi's work very clearly shows Ni as being a process other than how we commonly conceive of it, much more about having a sense of the future and an ability to envision the larger picture (critical because Intuition types must reject the here and now of Sensation to do this effectively, sort of squinting to get a hunch about what might be).
 

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@LiquidLight

If anything Ni would help provide a framework or a perspective from which Thinking or Feeling could work from (and in the Introverted expression it would be individual and subjective - the Ni-dom might have a hunch about say the significance of something, but significance on its own is still Feeling judgment, Ni is just the inner feeling that says "maybe there's something worth looking at from the standpoint of significance.")
well said--that makes it a bit easier to put into words...

from the above, would it not be unlikely that while thinking, holding the subject in your mind, etc., you may have an inkling of, like you said, where to look, or better yet, how to look--this could birth a unique (to your mind) way of viewing a situation/problem that would then allow your other functions/lenses to come into play? (and maybe these "hints" on where/how to look at "something" may change the way in which you view the object/situation--maybe your hunches have the potential to alter your point-of-view, which may have birthed the idea of equating Ni with perspective shifts?).

i know what you're getting at though. trying to map your own mental processes without knowledge can lead to diluted explanations/descriptions/and what others can see as definitions.
 

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To me its like if your sitting at a crossroads or different paths to go down (judgments), one of the ways Introverted Intuition might work is basically gives you a hunch about which road to take. This involves not really paying attention to the details of whats actually in front of you but focusing more on a hunch or gut-feeling (though this is a troublesome way to put it, because gut feelings could be actual feelings or something related to sensation, like a knot in your stomach). But you get where I'm coming from. Intuitions are ephemeral. They come in a flash and disappear seemingly as soon as they arrived. Being a dominant Intuitive means being a person who has come to rely on these flashes of inclination as a primary way of self-direction.
 

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I actually found this thread on another site and wanted to see what other people thought

It can be credited to @Seymour for typing it up on the other site (he's a member here too).

;)
 
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To me its like if your sitting at a crossroads or different paths to go down (judgments), one of the ways Introverted Intuition might work is basically gives you a hunch about which road to take. This involves not really paying attention to the details of whats actually in front of you but focusing more on a hunch or gut-feeling (though this is a troublesome way to put it, because gut feelings could be actual feelings or something related to sensation, like a knot in your stomach). But you get where I'm coming from. Intuitions are ephemeral. They come in a flash and disappear seemingly as soon as they arrived. Being a dominant Intuitive means being a person who has come to rely on these flashes of inclination as a primary way of self-direction.
i would say we're basically saying the same thing--unless i'm being incredibly dense.

at the heart, it is a "hunch", "feeling", "strong notion", whatever you associated it as being, as in whatever term outside of yourself matches the essence of the thing inside yourself you're trying to put to words.

(although... i would say that i don't really trust the "which way should i go"-hunches [partly from having anxiety-born practicality--and i know that was an example and not to be taken literally]... mine are almost like i can feel something about to coalesce, if i just keep at it, keep holding all the pieces in my mind, but the most common thing is that "feeling" that comes with the "pre-coalescing"... if that doesn't sound crazy...) lol
 

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i would say we're basically saying the same thing--unless i'm being incredibly dense.

at the heart, it is a "hunch", "feeling", "strong notion", whatever you associated it as being, as in whatever term outside of yourself matches the essence of the thing inside yourself you're trying to put to words.

(although... i would say that i don't really trust the "which way should i go"-hunches [partly from having anxiety-born practicality--and i know that was an example and not to be taken literally]... mine are almost like i can feel something about to coalesce, if i just keep at it, keep holding all the pieces in my mind, but the most common thing is that "feeling" that comes with the "pre-coalescing"... if that doesn't sound crazy...) lol
Nope you're absolutely right that's all intuitions are. As Von Franz puts it, a nose about knowing how the weather might be tomorrow or what someone's potential might be (Ne), or inner hunches and notions, vague visions, etc in the case of Ni.

It helps understand why Intuition and Sensation are on opposite ends of the spectrum because one is firmly rooted into the practical physical world and the other is rooted basically in vagueness and requires almost a dissociation from the real world to operate.
 

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Discussion Starter #19
It helps understand why Intuition and Sensation are on opposite ends of the spectrum because one is firmly rooted into the practical physical world and the other is rooted basically in vagueness and requires almost a dissociation from the real world to operate.
So your saying intution is abstract and sensation is concrete? because if you are than you may want to read this Keirsey Temperament and Myers Briggs personality type
 

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So your saying intution is abstract and sensation is concrete? because if you are than you may want to read this Keirsey Temperament and Myers Briggs personality type
No I think the article hits on the head. Abstract and concrete do not mean, to us, what they meant to Jung. Sensation is perception via the five senses. As such it is intrinsically tied to the physical reality of our world. It can only operate (even in its introverted form) based upon things that actually exist. Intuition, on the other hand, operates without the need for sensory perception (this is an oversimplification but the basic idea). That the components of intuition come from within as a hunch or a gut-feeling about something that may or may not be found in the real world. The defining characteristic of Intuition is that it cannot be often validated by empirical fact. It's just an inclination. A notion, a vague sense of something. To call Intuition abstract and Sensation concrete misses the point. Intuitions might, in fact, seem very concrete to an individual (even for a Sensation type). Certainly concrete enough for the dominant intuitive to accept this is a practical way of leading his thoughts.

The investigative journalist trying to sniff out a scandal might have nothing other than his intuitive instinct to operate on. To a Sensation type this might seem foolish and they would likely want to make sure there was some actual data to back up this notion rather than just trust it out right. It's much more appropriate to say Sensation is rooted in the here-and-now (and perhaps the past) and Intuition almost never the present. When we talk about possibilities with Ne, we are talking about things not yet come to pass. The ruminations of Ni might in fact be timeless, like whatever spark led Newton to gravity. This all stands in contrast to the immediate, what's-in-front-of-me, here and now of Sensation. To have an intuition preference necessitates a downplaying of sensation (in order to have a vague notion about something you sort of have to ignore the hard physical facts of what's in front of you). This is why sensation types' intuitions can be so off-the-mark because they are always grounded through the lens of Sensation, whereas the dominant Intuitive rejects Sensation and sees the intuition as standing its own ground as its own form of perception.
 
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