By: Van Der Hoop
The extravert of thinking type is guided by the structures and laws of thought, as these have been taught to him by his educator. He is able to make good use of these forms as arguments, and in his actions. Every sensuous experience is at once fitteed into its appropriate perceptual complex, and to a person of this type it would seem impossible that there could be awareness of the world apart from systematized conceptions. Facts are only thinkable for him as parts of an organized reality. Insight cannot even be regarded simply as intuitive experience, but must have its place in some systematic context. This way of thinking appears to the extraverted thinker as such a natural necessity that it is apt to be taken as absolute.
The objectivity of knowledge finds here its main support in facts and authorities. The system according to which the extraverted thinker arranges his facts is also held to be objective, although it is accepted as based on the prevailing authoritative views, and is subjected to no critical examination from within.He orders his facts critically and with great care, and herein lies the strength of the individual of this type. On the other hand, his chosen system may be a weak point, since it is often accepted as unquestionable, without the person concerned being himself aware of this. In this ordering of ideas and judgements this fanger may be greater than where facts of sensory perception are concerned, because in the former case there are more likely to be all kinds of subjective and capricious elements in the material itself. There is no doubt that thought can do creative work in its establishment and classification of facts and judgements. In general, one may say, therefore, that this type possesses great receptivity for facts and opinions, but that the formulaes by which he tests these, and according to which he classifies them, are frequently somewhat rigid and limited. It depends also on circumstances, whether the rigid or the receptive side prevails in the development of the type.
It is possible, even in children of this character, to observe these two sides. They are accessible to anything which their thoughts can classify, and are quick to adobt current systems and in being able to apply them. In addition, they also make use of their knowledge at an early age, so as themselves to be regarded as authorities, setting themselves up, wiht a certain pedantic precociousness, as superior to others. In later life, also, these peculiarities are found in alll kinds of variations in people of this type. Their knowledge usually embraces a wide field, and they are rarely unwilling to add something fresh to it. But there must e no interference with the system or with the principles to which they subscribe, and which for them possess absolute validity. Any such attempt is repulsed as foolish, morbid, or mischevious. Convinced of their objectivity, they strongly oppose anyone who would be prepared to consider the validity of other modes of classification or other principles. The advantages of their strong side, and the disadvantages of their weak points, are also frequently evident in another field. The official, doing useful work in all kinds of social conditions by the application of tiresome legal stipulations, may at home allow his rigid principles and his niggling exactitude to destroy all happiness. in his family, exerting an inhibiting influence on th edevelopment of his children. The advantage of a clear and business-like outlook may, when it is applied in petty ways, degenerate into a tiresome and dreary prosiness. Controlling principles and systems then become strait-jackets. Right and wrong, good and bad, are judged by this thinking type of person according to whether they conform to his system or not. this has for him absolute validity: it is the purest expression of the law of the universe. This is true for his scientific as for his ethical system. Anything that does not agree therewith appears to hima ccidental or untrue. He is convinced that such facts will, on closer examination, fit into his system, and that anything in his nature which he will ultimately br able to master.
If the standpoint by such people is a broad minded one, they may exert a settling and purifying influence, both where it is a matter of profitting by experience and where controlling principles are involved.
Among peoples of this type are found excellent officials, organizers, and scientists, people who distinguish themselves, both in practical and theoretical fields, by their thoroughness and their wide knowledge. Few women belong to this type. These people are always most effective in the external aspect of their sphere of influence, aince their adjustment is mainy in an outward direction. Here their aptness for system introducesa new clarity and vision. Where things are already in order, their efforts are limited to the maintenance of the status quo and to the resistance against disturbing influences. Hence in a narrower sphere they are liable to be somewhat conservative and conventional. In such circumstances they may appear to be quiet, pleasant people; but at the same time somewhat rigid and tyranntical, without much understanding of other's needs.
As far as activity is concerned, there is evident in these people a manifestation which we shall also have occasion to notice in intoverted thinkers and in feeling types, namely, the significant place assumed by the will. I agree with Jung in regarding to the will as an expression of consciously organizes aspirations. In thinking and feeling there is a definite extension of the conscious mental organization. As a result, instinctual and impulsive forces are canalized in the personality, increading the amount of free energy which is more or less constantly available. In instinctive and intuitive people, unconscious impulse and spontaneous inspiration play the most important part in stimulating activity. In people of thought and feeling, the will is the more constantly essential factor. The consequence is that, in general, thinking types manifest a constant, quiet activity. In addition to their feeling for order and their conscientiousness, their persistence is a particularly advantageous quality. Their contact with material things, and with theories and systems, is, however, usually better than it is with people. Their disinclination for introspection often prevents their entering very deeply into psychological problems. These reasoning people manifest, also, in general, a certain coldness and aloofness, their systematized thinking standing between themselves and the world. Even in extraverted thinkers this is noticeable in their attitude and approach, in spite of their satisfactory adaptation to circumstances.
Both the instinctive and intuitive aspets of the disposition may assert themselves in thinking-types of this kind, and be subjected to the influence of reason. Reason tends to emphasize the sensory aspect of instinctual experience. Instinctual impulse belongs-as I shall show later- more to the life of feeling, and the thinker tries to keep away from this. He does this by representing it as inessential, and by concentrating his whole attention on more material experience. That part of his feeling-life which is affected by instinct, but does not disturb his principles, may them be allowed to add to his joy in life, in the form of "normal, healthy pleasures." Even our intuitions may appear to us as universully valid knowledge in which case thought, too, is prepared to recognize their objective value; but only on condition that it is allowed to examine and delimit their validity. Extraverted thinking does this by comparing intuitively conceived views with one another. Even their own intuition is checked up in this way by people of this type. As regards to the intuition of others, one frequently finds in them a peculiar manifestation. If, for example, in a debate, another opinion is opposed to theirs, they will regard this too with great objectivity, simply placing the two judgements side by side, and thus giving the impression that they really have no opinion of their own. In reality, they think of all judgements as facts, so as to be able to include as many as they possibly can in the thought-system they are elaborating.
The mental life of people of this kind is farthest removed from feeling, since this would disturb their liking for objectivity. Their feelings are, accordingly, the least independent part of them, and are equired to fall in entirely with their principles. Feelings which will not do this remain unconscious, but may well be obvious to others. While consciously they are governed only by principles, it will, for example, be obvious in a discussion that they are personally offended, from the irritable tone of their voice, or from an involuntary hostility to opponents. In such circumstances, also, they may occasionally, in pursuit of their aims, employ means which could not well be reconciled with their principles. In general, they keep matters of feeling at a distance, particularly where love and sex are concerned."
I also want to add that this was written well before the Myers briggs system was developed, so the information will not coincide perfectly with TJ types.