I've read that there is a correlation between Openness (Big Five personality trait) and Intuition. However, I'm wondering if there's some trait that measures something similar to the Sensing functions.
You answered your own question. The fact that the correlation is phrased as "intuition is associated with openness" rather than "sensing is associated with closedness" is an artifact of the fact that Big Five doesn't have independent words for each side of its five scales.
(Of course, Openness doesn't in any event capture the essence of Intuition, it just has a large positive correlation. They don't mean precisely the same thing.)