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@Cosmic Hobo
This one's for you.

Ave. Today I am here to renew the efforts in determining the types of the more famous emperors of the Roman Empire. Particularly important ones are in bold. Of course, there isn't necessarily enough evidence about all these, but it's entertaining to give them a shot. I've excluded some that ruled for a very short period of time and/or were not "worth" mentioning:

1st Century CE

Augustus (31 bce–14 ce) INTJ
Tiberius (14–37 ce) ISTJ
Caligula (37–41 ce) ESFP
Claudius (41–54 ce) INTP
Nero (54–68 ce) ISFP
Galba (68–69 ce) ISTJ
Otho (January–April 69 ce) ESTJ
Vespasian (69–79 ce) ENTJ
Titus (79–81 ce) ENFJ
Domitian (81–96 ce) INTJ
Nerva (96–98 ce) ISTX

2nd Century CE

Trajan (98–117 ce) ESTX
Hadrian (117–138 ce) INFJ
Antoninus Pius (138–161 ce) ISFJ
Marcus Aurelius (161–180 ce) INXJ
Commodus (177–192 ce) ESTP
Septimius Severus (193–211 ce) EXTJ

3rd Century CE

Caracalla (198–217 ce) ESTJ
Macrinus (217–218 ce)
Elagabalus (218–222 ce)
Severus Alexander (222–235 ce) INTP
Maximinus (235–238 ce)
Aurelian (270–275 ce) ENTJ
Probus (276–282 ce) XSTJ
Diocletian (east, 284–305 ce; divided the empire into east and west) INTJ
Maximian (west, 286–305 ce)

4th Century CE

Constantius I (west, 305–306 ce)
Galerius (east, 305–311 ce)
Maxentius (west, 306–312 ce)
Constantine I (306–337 ce; reunified the empire) ESTX
Julian (361–363 ce) INTJ
Valentinian I (west, 364–375 ce)
Valens (east, 364–378 ce)
Theodosius I (east, 379–392 ce; east and west, 392–395 ce)
Honorius (west, 393–395 ce, coemperor; 395–423 ce, sole emperor)

5th Century CE

Avitus (west, 455–456 ce)
Majorian (west, 457–461 ce)
Romulus Augustulus (west, 475–476 ce)
Zeno (east, 474–491 ce)

Byzantine (not in chronological order):
Basil II - ESTP
Constantine V - ISTJ
Justinian I - ENXJ
Heraclius - ENTJ
Alexios I Komnenos - INTJ
 

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@Cosmic Hobo
This one's for you.
Gratias tibi ago!

Ave. Today I am here to renew the efforts in determining the types of the more famous emperors of the Roman Empire. Particularly important ones are in bold. Of course, there isn't necessarily enough evidence about all these, but it's entertaining to give them a shot. I've excluded some that ruled for a very short period of time and/or were not "worth" mentioning:
This is a thorough list, and I agree with most of them. I'll follow your advice, though, and query where I'm skeptical!

Caligula, Nero, Commodus - Roman history is an argument against putting an SP in charge of government.

1st Century CE

Augustus (31 bce–14 ce) INTJ
Tiberius (14–37 ce) ISTJ
Caligula (37–41 ce) ESFP
Claudius (41–54 ce) INTP
Nero (54–68 ce) ISFP
Galba (68–69 ce) ISTJ
Otho (January–April 69 ce) ESTJ
Vespasian (69–79 ce) ENTJ
Titus (79–81 ce) ENFJ
Domitian (81–96 ce) INTJ
Nerva (96–98 ce) ISTX
I find it hard to type Tiberius. He was a seasoned general (ST), but his interest in logic, rhetoric, philosophy and astrology seems more NT. And would an ISTJ's sense of duty let them retire to islands? He and Domitian (as you say, INTJ!) also strike me as similar in character.

Galba is textbook ISTJ, of the worst sort - a military martinet with a fondness for old-fashioned punishment. I love Gore Vidal's description: "the doddering pederasty of Galba".

What about Vitellius? ESxP? - sensual indulgence. Food, glorious food!

Nerva - maybe an ISxJ?

2nd Century CE

Trajan (98–117 ce) ESTX
Hadrian (117–138 ce) INFJ
Antoninus Pius (138–161 ce) ISFJ
Marcus Aurelius (161–180 ce) INXJ
Commodus (177–192 ce) ESTP
Septimius Severus (193–211 ce) EXTJ
Hadrian: fascinating personality. One of the most intellectually curious of the emperors - fascinated by travel, history, science, the arts, but also an expert in military science. "He was in one and the same person both stern and cheerful, affable and harsh, impetuous and hesitant, mean and generous, hypocritical and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable."
Why an introvert rather than an extrovert?

Marcus Aurelius... Yeah, INxJ. Would an INTJ let his son take power, knowing that son would be a disastrous ruler?

Severus - probably an ENTJ. Ambitious to become emperor from early manhood.

And adding two minor emperors to your list:

Lucius Verus - ESxP
Pertinax - ISTJ?

3rd Century CE

Caracalla (198–217 ce) ESTJ
Macrinus (217–218 ce)
Elagabalus (218–222 ce)
Severus Alexander (222–235 ce) INTP
Maximinus (235–238 ce)
Aurelian (270–275 ce) ENTJ
Probus (276–282 ce) XSTJ
Diocletian (east, 284–305 ce; divided the empire into east and west) INTJ
Maximian (west, 286–305 ce)
Elagabalus - ExxP. Hormone-driven, sex-crazed, murderous teenager, with a penchant for bizarre practical jokes. And invented the whoopee cushion.

Maximinus Thrax - definitely ST, with acromegaly.

Probus - yeah, STJ leader of the best sort - honest, efficient, and a stabilising influence, just when the empire needed it most. Saw problems, and fixed them. Unfortunately the soldiers saw him as a problem, and killed him.

Any thoughts on Gallienus?

4th Century CE

Constantius I (west, 305–306 ce)
Galerius (east, 305–311 ce)
Maxentius (west, 306–312 ce)
Constantine I (306–337 ce; reunified the empire) ESTX
Julian (361–363 ce) INTJ
Valentinian I (west, 364–375 ce)
Valens (east, 364–378 ce)
Theodosius I (east, 379–392 ce; east and west, 392–395 ce)
Honorius (west, 393–395 ce, coemperor; 395–423 ce, sole emperor)

5th Century CE

Avitus (west, 455–456 ce)
Majorian (west, 457–461 ce)
Romulus Augustulus (west, 475–476 ce)
Zeno (east, 474–491 ce)

Byzantine (not in chronological order):
Basil II - ESTP
Constantine V - ISTJ
Justinian I - ENXJ
Heraclius - ENTJ
Alexios I Komnenos - INTJ
The period I know least about - the emperors of the tetrarchy, the Western and Eastern empires, and Byzantium blur, except for Diocletian, Constantine, Julian, and Justinian.
 

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Discussion Starter #3 (Edited)
I find it hard to type Tiberius. He was a seasoned general (ST), but his interest in logic, rhetoric, philosophy and astrology seems more NT. And would an ISTJ's sense of duty let them retire to islands? He and Domitian (as you say, INTJ!) also strike me as similar in character.

Hadrian: fascinating personality. One of the most intellectually curious of the emperors - fascinated by travel, history, science, the arts, but also an expert in military science. "He was in one and the same person both stern and cheerful, affable and harsh, impetuous and hesitant, mean and generous, hypocritical and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable."
Why an introvert rather than an extrovert?

Marcus Aurelius... Yeah, INxJ. Would an INTJ let his son take power, knowing that son would be a disastrous ruler?


Any thoughts on Gallienus?
This will be a WIP reply.

Thank you for replying to your summons.

I could see Tiberius as an INTJ, but I might even throw in ISTP as a possible guess. He was a very dutiful man according to what I've read of him, and I believe he also entertained the thought of returning the Empire to a Republic.
Content there with a modest house and a villa in the suburbs not much more spacious, he adopted a most unassuming manner of life, at times walking in the gymnasium without a lictor or a messenger, and exchanging courtesies with the good people of Greece with almost the air of an equal.

It chanced one morning in arranging his programme for the day, that he had announced his wish to visit whatever sick folk there were in the city. This was misunderstood by his attendants, and orders were given that all the sick should be taken to a public colonnade and arranged according to the nature of their complaints. Whereupon Tiberius, shocked at this unexpected sight, and in doubt for some time what to do, at last went about to each one, apologizing for what had happened even to the humblest and most obscure of them.

Only one single instance was noticed of a visible exercise of the rights of the tribunicial authority. He was a constant attendant at the schools and lecture-rooms of the professors of philosophy, and once when a hot dispute had arisen among rival sophists, a fellow had the audacity to ply him with abuse when he took part and appeared to favour one side. Thereupon he gradually backed away to his house, and then suddenly coming out with his lictors and attendants, and bidding his crier to summon the foul-mouthed fellow before his tribunal, he had him taken off to prison.
- Suetonis The Twelve Caesars pages 309-311.

I'd like to add that I've changed my mind on Domitian:

Micromanaged the economy and people's lives, believed heavily in roman religion, was ruthlessly efficient with the economy, and he legislated morality very heavily.

Sounds more Cato the Elder (ESTJ) than Caesar or Augustus (ENTJ & INTJ) to me. (Though Augustus did legislate some amount of morality.)

Vitellius is a thumbs up from me.

Hadrian as an ENFJ would make sense to me.

From what I've read about Aurelius, it's possible he simply didn't groom Commodus enough to be emperor because of the wars he fought on an almost constant basis, and he did die rather suddenly. Who else would succeed him given the premise that he didn't select a successor due to his sudden death? I'd stand by INXJ. Asceticism/Self-Discipline is often attributed to Dom Si and Inferior Se, so take your pick if you disagree on the N.

Gallienius seems like an ENXP as you described, but I haven't read as much about him.

No idea about the others you listed.
 

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I enjoy a good WIP-round. (So did Elagabalus.)

I heard my summons, so I obeyed. Bell, book, and candle shall not drive me back!

Thinking of Tiberius... Have you seen ITV's Caesars? Magnificent program, despite its age (late '60s, monochrome). The scripts are arguably more sophisticated than I, Claudius; The Caesars focuses on politics and ethics, whereas I, Claudius is more character-driven melodrama / black comedy. (Still one of the very best things the BBC ever did.) Augustus here is the historical figure - ruthless and autocratic, under a suave veneer. Tiberius (the great André Morell) is the most sympathetic character, and the protagonist - a Republican who unwillingly accepts the empire. Agrippina is as ambitious as Lady Macbeth, goading Germanicus to seize the throne. Caligula is terrifying: rational, intellectual, but someone who kills without a qualm, just to make a point about the exercise of power.

Here's the first episode, to give you an idea.
The print quality is the weakest of the episodes; don't let that put you off, though. The DVD sells for 8 pounds on Amazon UK.

I'd never thought of Domitian as an extrovert; he always seemed introverted - described as reserved, secretive, solitary. He probably had an inferiority complex; he was the son and the brother of two great generals, both of whom overlooked him, and didn't give him much power or responsibility, or let him lead him armies. He was also paranoid. Those may have made him turn inwards.

Aurelius: Would an INTJ have let his son survive to inherit the empire, if by doing so he was likely to wreck it? Augustus (INTJ), remember, had exiled his grandson Postumus to Planasia, and had him executed after his death, because he considered him a threat to the empire.
 

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Discussion Starter #5
I enjoy a good WIP-round. (So did Elagabalus.)

I heard my summons, so I obeyed. Bell, book, and candle shall not drive me back!

Thinking of Tiberius... Have you seen ITV's Caesars? Magnificent program, despite its age (late '60s, monochrome). The scripts are arguably more sophisticated than I, Claudius; The Caesars focuses on politics and ethics, whereas I, Claudius is more character-driven melodrama / black comedy. (Still one of the very best things the BBC ever did.) Augustus here is the historical figure - ruthless and autocratic, under a suave veneer. Tiberius (the great André Morell) is the most sympathetic character, and the protagonist - a Republican who unwillingly accepts the empire. Agrippina is as ambitious as Lady Macbeth, goading Germanicus to seize the throne. Caligula is terrifying: rational, intellectual, but someone who kills without a qualm, just to make a point about the exercise of power.

Here's the first episode, to give you an idea.
The print quality is the weakest of the episodes; don't let that put you off, though. The DVD sells for 8 pounds on Amazon UK.

I'd never thought of Domitian as an extrovert; he always seemed introverted - described as reserved, secretive, solitary. He probably had an inferiority complex; he was the son and the brother of two great generals, both of whom overlooked him, and didn't give him much power or responsibility, or let him lead him armies. He was also paranoid. Those may have made him turn inwards.

Aurelius: Would an INTJ have let his son survive to inherit the empire, if by doing so he was likely to wreck it? Augustus (INTJ), remember, had exiled his grandson Postumus to Planasia, and had him executed after his death, because he considered him a threat to the empire.
I have watched the first few episodes of Caesars. Wonderful show, indeed. I think I ended after Germanicus decided his actions to take during the rebellion and calmed his soldiers. I must admit, I'm charmed by the fact that Caligula is both rational and intellectual in that show.

Here's some (slightly biased) descriptions of Domitian from Suetonius from The Life of Domitian - The Twelve Caesars
There he was so effectually concealed, that though he was closely followed, he could not be found, in spite of a thorough search. 3 It was only after the victory that he ventured forth and after being hailed as Caesar,3 he assumed the office of city praetor with consular powers, but only in name, turning over all the judicial business to his next colleague. But he exercised all the tyranny of his high position4 so lawlessly, that it was even then apparent what sort of a man he was going to be. Not to mention all details, after making free with the wives of many men, he went so far as to marry Domitia Longina, who was the wife of Aelius Lamia, and in a single day he assigned more than twenty positions in the city and abroad,5 which led Vespasian to say more than once that he was surprised that he did not appoint the emperor's successor with the rest...

He himself too made a remarkable pretence of modesty and especially of an interest in poetry, an art which had previously been as unfamiliar to him as it was later despised and rejected, and he even gave readings in public...

At the beginning of his reign he used to spend hours in seclusion every day, doing nothing but catch flies and stab them with a keenly-sharpened stylus...

In his administration of the government he for some time showed himself inconsistent, with about an equal number of virtues and vices, but finally he turned the virtues also into vices; for so far as one may guess, it was contrary to his natural disposition11 that he was made rapacious through need and cruel through fear...

During the whole of every gladiatorial show there always stood at his feet a small boy clad in scarlet, with an abnormally small head, with whom he used to talk a great deal, and sometimes seriously. At any rate, he was overheard to ask him if he knew why he had decided at the last appointment day to make Mettius Rufus praefect of Egypt. He often gave sea-fights almost with regular fleets, having dug a pool near the Tiber and surrounded it with seats;a and he continued to witness the contests amid heavy rains...

He made many innovations also in common customs. He did away with the distribution of food to the people25 and revived that of formal dinners.26 He added two factions of drivers in the Circus, with gold and purple as their colours, to the four former ones.27 He forbade the appearance of actors on the stage, but allowed the practice of their art in private houses. He prohibited the castration of males, and kept down the price of the eunuchs that remained in the hands of the slave dealers. 2 Once upon the occasion of a plentiful wine crop, attended with a scarcity of grain, thinking that the fields were neglected through too much attention to the vineyards, he made an edict forbidding anyone to plant more vines in Italy and ordering that the vineyards in the provinces be cut down, or but half of them at most be left standing; but he did not persist in carrying out the measure.28 He opened some of the most important offices of the court29 to freedmen and Roman knights. 3 He prohibited the uniting of two legions in one camp and the deposit of more than a thousand sesterces by any one soldier at headquarters,30 because it was clear that Lucius Antonius had been especially led to attempt a revolution by the amount of such deposits in the combined winter quarters of two legions...
I can see an introvert, but nonetheless, does XSTJ sound right to you?

I'll concede on Aurelius not being an INTJ, but would you say ISTJ or INFJ?
 

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I have watched the first few episodes of Caesars. Wonderful show, indeed. I think I ended after Germanicus decided his actions to take during the rebellion and calmed his soldiers. I must admit, I'm charmed by the fact that Caligula is both rational and intellectual in that show.

Here's some (slightly biased) descriptions of Domitian from Suetonius from The Life of Domitian - The Twelve Caesars


I can see an introvert, but nonetheless, does XSTJ sound right to you?

I'll concede on Aurelius not being an INTJ, but would you say ISTJ or INFJ?
Late at night, and I'm about to head to bed. I'll give my thoughts about Domitian tomorrow.

Glad you liked The Caesars - but why haven't you seen the whole thing?

Aurelius... The lazy approach is to say philosophy = N, but how original are the Meditations? It's more a notebook than a work of abstract reasoning, Aurelius reminding himself of Stoic principles and applying them to situations in his life.
 

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Discussion Starter #7
Late at night, and I'm about to head to bed. I'll give my thoughts about Domitian tomorrow.

Glad you liked The Caesars - but why haven't you seen the whole thing?

Aurelius... The lazy approach is to say philosophy = N, but how original are the Meditations? It's more a notebook than a work of abstract reasoning, Aurelius reminding himself of Stoic principles and applying them to situations in his life.
Just finished the Caesars for you and for my enjoyment of it. I just never got around to finishing it.

That's what gave me the inclination of ISTJ after the ruling out of INTJ. From what I remember, his Meditations are just reminders and re-writings of the Stoic tenants. You still haven't offered a guess of your own.
 

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Just finished the Caesars for you and for my enjoyment of it. I just never got around to finishing it.

That's what gave me the inclination of ISTJ after the ruling out of INTJ. From what I remember, his Meditations are just reminders and re-writings of the Stoic tenants. You still haven't offered a guess of your own.
Hurrah!

ISFJ?
 

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Discussion Starter #9 (Edited)
Hurrah!

ISFJ?
Someone's been on CelebrityTypes.

I'm doubtful. His self-discipline, well-organized armies, and moral warmth towards others seems Te-Fi rather than Fe-Ti. I'll be re-reading some sources on him and I'll give you my final verdict.
 

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Someone's been on CelebrityTypes. <br>
<br> Reply With Quote
I'm doubtful. His self-discipline, well-organized armies, and <em>moral</em> warmth towards others seems Te-Fi rather than Fe-Ti. I'll be re-reading some sources on him and I'll give you my final verdict.
No... What did Aurelius himself say about wrongful accusations? ;)

IxxJ is, I think, clear. We'd eliminated INTJ. That leaves ISTJ, ISFJ, and INFJ.
 

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Not nearly educated enough on Roman history to give accurate answers but I will say that I think I saw Augustus as an ISTJ once, and this seems to make sense, "Give me back my legions" and banging on the wall about it seems like a very dominant Si thing to do (clinging to things, the past, preserving and not wanting to accept lost things). So I think that would fit in. I imagine an INTJ during that situation would be shaken but not really cling to the past like so.
 

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Not nearly educated enough on Roman history to give accurate answers but I will say that I think I saw Augustus as an ISTJ once, and this seems to make sense, "Give me back my legions" and banging on the wall about it seems like a very dominant Si thing to do (clinging to things, the past, preserving and not wanting to accept lost things). So I think that would fit in. I imagine an INTJ during that situation would be shaken but not really cling to the past like so.
He completely lost the top 3 legions of the Empire, as he put it, he was "fishing with a golden hook" and suffered the consequences. Although I can see that as being an effect of Si, I'd point you more toward his political actions:

The Triumvirate; a temporary peace to slowly check and defeat the other members.

His successor dealings; he executed almost any man that could be declared emperor, and when his grandson and possibly successor said he would execute the captain of a guard for being rude to him, he deposed of him.

His personal life; if I remember reading correctly, he would often take a woman in the middle of dinner, perform intercourse in a private room, and return. Seems like Inf. Se to me.

His politics; the key thing about Augustus is that he tried to reconcile the new with the old. Other XSTJ figures (i.e. Cato the Younger [and also elder], Cicero, Fabius Maximus) would try to maintain ancient traditions and be much harder to change.

His life reeks of Ni to me.
 

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Discussion Starter #13
Marcus Aurelius... Yeah, INxJ. Would an INTJ let his son take power, knowing that son would be a disastrous ruler?
This is necroposting of the highest order from me, but I've come across an interesting theory that posits that Aurelius had to make Commodus his successor or execute him, and given that he was, iirc, suddenly struck by disease, I don't know if he necessarily was expecting to have to decide between Commodus or another successor.

If he kept Commodus alive while choosing another, non-blood-related successor, especially in a somewhat precarious time as this, it probably would have resulted in a civil war over succession.
 
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