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While there are many explanations and descriptions of cognitive functions, I have yet to find one to my likings. Fortunately, I don't mind researching and figuring out things, but I figured someone else might. This thread will attempt to explain the process of finding your type (in relation to MBTI) through cognitive functions.
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To start, you must gain a little knowledge of how exactly cognitive functions are defined.According to Jungian theory, there are two general types of cognition (or ways to take in). These are Judging and Perceiving. Within these two processes, there are four separate functions. Under perceiving there is Sensing (data) and Intuition (abstract), and under judging there is Thinking and Feeling. Under these four functions (sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling), there is an Extroverted (directed outwardly) and Introverted (directed internally) function. The chart below should clarify any misunderstandings currently had.

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Now, all these functions have a hierarchy. They go: Dominant, Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior. The order of these functions in this manner will be your type. But how do you do that?
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The very first step is Finding Your Dominant Function. A few rules apply:

  • If you are inherently extroverted, then your dominant function will be an extroverted (Xe) one.
  • If you are introverted, then your dominant function will also be introverted (Xi).
Once the struggle of introverted/extroverted is figured out, then you must decided if you dominantly lie on the judging or perceiving side. Here are a few rules that will be handy to keep in mind:

  • If your dominant function is to perceive, then it will either be sensing or iNtuition.
  • If your dominant function is to judge, then it will either be thinking or feeling.
Your dominant function should be fairly easy to figure out, as it is Dominant and will present in nearly everything you do. If further help is needed, please overlook this helpful and detailed explanation of cognitive functions, or simply look for your own.

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For example, my most dominant trait is Ti. I know this to be true because it is apparent in my everyday life.
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After finding your dominant function, the second step is Finding Your Auxiliary Function. Finding your auxiliary function should now be simplified to two options. This is because...

  • If your dominant function was on the perceiving side, then your auxiliary will be on the judging side.
  • If your dominant function was on the judging side, then your auxiliary will be on the perceiving side.
  • If your dominant function was introverted, then your auxiliary is extroverted.
  • If your dominant function was extroverted, then your auxiliary is introverted.
The chart below applies these rules to my dominant function. Hopefully it helps to clarify.

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The second chart (above) shows my auxiliary function. My dominant function was on the judging side, therefore my auxiliary function had to be on the perceiving side. And since my dominant function was introverted, my auxiliary function had to be extroverted. Through the process of elimination, this left me with Ne and Se. Personally, Se fitted me better.
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With the dominant and auxiliary functions out of the way, Finding Your Tertiary and Inferior Functions should be rather simple. The reason why is because of the following rules:

  • The tertiary function is the opposite of your auxiliary function.
  • The inferior function is the opposite of your dominant function.
The rules are pretty self explanatory, but applying it to my dominant and auxiliary functions should help.

My auxiliary function is Ne, so the opposite of it would be Si (or my tertiary function). My dominant function is Ti, so the opposite would be Fe (or my inferior function).
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Now that you have found your dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior functions, you should have your type. Given the previous examples, mine would be Ti Ne Si Fe, or INTP. I won't go into how we know that, but I will provide this link to a handy chart to help you convert yours.
 

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Nice plot. Recently, I've been found the way cognitive functions create MBTI from Dominant function to Inferior function.
But, I think we must know the Dominant function first and Auxiliary function first. It takes a lot of observation and tests to know it, except we have great skill self-reflection. IMO
 
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