[Enneagram Type 5] Naranjo's 'Character & Neurosis': Ennea-Type V

Naranjo's 'Character & Neurosis': Ennea-Type V

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    Naranjo's 'Character & Neurosis': Ennea-Type V

    Hello Fives. For those of you who are interested, here's the Type 5 chapter of Naranjo's 'Character and Neurosis'.

    AVARICE AND PATHOLOGICAL DETACHMENT

    ENNEA-TYPE V

    1. Core Theory, Nomenclature, and Place in the Enneagram

    As a spiritual “missing of the mark” or spiritual hindrance, avarice must have naturally
    been understood by the church fathers in more than its literal sense, and so we see confirmed
    in Chaucer’s “Parson’s Tale” from The Canterbury Tales , a reflection of the spirit of his time:
    “Avarice consists not only of greed for lands and chattles, but sometimes for learning and for
    glory.”1

    If the gesture of anger is to run over, that of avarice is one of holding back and holding
    in. While anger expresses greed in an assertive (even though unacknowledged) way, greed in
    avarice manifests only through retentiveness. This is a fearful grasping, implying a fantasy that
    letting go would result in catastrophic depletion. Behind the hoarding impulse there is, we may
    say, an experience of impending impoverishment.

    Yet, holding on is only half of ennea-type V psychology; the other half is giving up too
    easily. Because of an excessive resignation in regard to love and people, precisely, there is a
    compensatory clutching at oneself—which may or not manifest in a grasping onto possessions,
    but involves a much more generalized hold over one’s inner life as well as an economy of
    e ort and resources. The holding back and self-control of avarice is not unlike that of the
    anger type, yet it is accompanied by a getting stuck through clutching at the present without
    openness to the emerging future.2

    Just as it can be said of the wrathful that they are mostly unconscious of their anger and
    that anger is their main taboo—it may be said of the avaricious that their avarice is mostly
    unconscious, while consciously they may feel every gesture of possession and drawing up of
    boundaries as forbidden. It might be said that the avaricious is internally perfectionistic rather
    than critical of the outer world, but most importantly the difference between the two ennea-
    types lies in the contrast between the active extroversion of the former and the introversion of
    the latter, (the introversion of a thinking type that avoids action).

    Also ennea-type I is demanding while ennea-type V seeks to minimize his own needs and
    claims, and is prone to be pushed around in virtue of a compulsive obedience. Though both
    types are characterized by a strong super-ego, they are like cops and robbers respectively, for
    the former identifies more with its idealized superego-congruent self, while ennea-type
    Videntifes with the overwhelmed and guilty sub-personality that is the object of super-egoic

    demands.3

    The polarity between pathological detachment and the attachment of holding-on echoes
    the polarity in ennea-type I between anger and an over-civilized compulsive virtue. Neediness
    in ennea-type V is deeply hidden in the psyche, behind the veil of indifference, resignation,
    stoic renunciation. And just as perfectionism nurtures the anger that sustains it, we may also
    say here that the prohibition of needs (not simply from their satisfaction but even from their
    recognition within the psyche) must contribute to the impoverishment of life that underlies the
    urge to hold on.

    Ichazo’s word for the fixation corresponding to ennea-type V is “stinginess,” which stands, I
    think, too close to “avarice”—the ruling passion or emotion. “Meanness” with its connotation
    of an unknowing failure to give would come closer to capturing the dominant aspect of the
    ennea-type V strategy in face of the world: self-distancing and the giving up of relationships.
    Still better, however, is to speak of being detached, withdrawn, autistic, and schizoid.

    2. Antecedents in the Scientific Literature on Character

    Just as the image of the anankastics that we find in Schneider smacks of a certain
    contamination with the schizoid (in that Schneider emphasizes formality as an expression of
    insecurity) there is in Kurt Schneider’s concept of the “sensitive”—the personality disposition
    that most resembles our schizoid—some emphasis on the obsessive element, for he tells us that
    the more esthenic (i.e. assertive) among these have excessive “moral scruples.” There is no
    doubt, however, that Kurt Schneider has in mind our schizoid when he describes the sensitives
    as those “subjects that have an increased capacity for impressions with regard to all kinds of
    experiences without the ability of expressing them.” He speaks of a “retentive elaboration of
    all experiences that is turned against the self.” And adds that “the sensitive individual seeks
    firstly the blame for every event or failure in himself.”4

    The syndrome of aloof retentiveness has not only been observed but also received much
    attention in contemporary psychology.

    Aside from the possibility that the schizoid form of retentiveness probably contributed to
    Freud’s abstraction of an anal character, it corresponds to the syndrome described by Ernst
    Kretschmer, pioneer of systematic characterology. When in his study of schizophrenic patients
    at his clinic he described the syndrome that he proposed to call schizoid, the following were
    the main group of traits he observed to be the most frequent:

    1. Unsociable, quiet, reserved, serious (humorless)
    2. Timid, shy, with ne feelings, sensitive, nervous, excitable, fond of nature and books
    3. Pliable, kindly, honest, indifferent, silent

    Groups two and three stand in certain opposition to one another, forming a contrast
    similar to that he described between depression and elation in his cyclothymic type.5 “If we
    want to give a short account of the basis of the schizoid temperament,” he says, “we must say:
    the schizoid temperament lies between the extremes of excitability and dullness, in the same
    way that a cycloid temperament lies between the extremes of cheerfulness and sadness.”

    Both among his patients as among the bearers of what he proposed to call “schizothymic”
    temperament (among his “normal” acquaintances), Kretschmer had the merit of pointing out
    the polarity between hypersensitivity and insensitivity in this personality: sometimes it is one
    or the other that is the chief characteristic, while in others an alternation or a transition from
    early “hyperaesthesia” to late apathy. More generally, I think, we may say the individual is
    characterized by an exaggerated vulnerability and by a self-protective distancing from his
    excessively ne and vulnerable feelings. I quote Kretschmer again:

    “He alone, however, has the key to the schizoid temperament who has clearly recognized
    that the majority of schizoids are not either over-sensitive or cold, but they are over-sensitive

    and cold at the same time, and, indeed, in quite different relational mixtures.” “Out of our
    schizoid material we can form a continuous series, beginning with what I call the ‘Hölderlin
    type,’ those extremely sensitive, abnormally tender, constantly wounded, mimosa-like natures,
    who are “all nerves”- and winding up to those cold, numbed, almost lifeless ruins left by the
    ravages of a severe attack of dementia praecox, who glimmer dimly in the corner of the
    asylum, dull-witted as cows.”

    This polarity, Kretschmer emphasizes, is not to be found in the middle of the range. He
    finds individuals like Strindberg, who said of himself: “I am hard as ice, and yet so full of
    feeling that I am almost sentimental.” “But even in that half of our material, which is
    primarily cold, and poor in a ective response, as soon as we come into close personal contact
    with such schizoids, we find, very frequently, behind the affectless, numbed exterior, in the
    innermost sanctuary, a tender personality-nucleus with the most vulnerable nervous sensitivity,
    which has withdrawn into itself and lies there contorted.”

    The unsociable (or “autistic”) characteristic of his schizoid is something that could be
    understood either in relation to hypersensitivity or to insensitivity toward others, as in the case
    of those sensitive natures that “seek as far as possible to avoid and deaden all stimulation from
    the outside; they close the shutters of their houses, in order to lead a dream-life, fantastic, poor
    in deeds and rich in thought (Hölderlin) in the soft mulled gloom of the interior. They seek
    loneliness, as Strindberg so beautifully said of himself, in order to “‘spin themselves into the
    silk of their own souls’.” Kretschmer’s view on schizothymia was further elaborated by Sheldon
    who endorsed Kretschmer’s threefold conception of human constitution, interpreted the
    “aesthenic” body-build as “ectomorphia” (originating in the predominance of the embryonic
    ectoderm), and viewed the schizoid disposition as a variable in temperament that he called
    “cerebrotonia.”6

    Related to ectomorphy, “cerebrotonia” appears to express the function of exteroception,
    which necessitates or involves cerebrally-mediated inhibition of both the other two primary
    functions, somatotonia and viscerotonia. It also involves or leads to conscious attentionality and
    thereby to substitution of symbolic ideation for immediate overt response to stimulation.
    Attendant upon this latter phenomenon are the “cerebral tragedies” or hesitation, disorientation
    and confusion. These appear to be the by-products of over-stimulation, which is doubtless one
    consequence of an over-balanced investment in “exteroception.” Though Sheldon is more
    concerned with variables than with types, it is clearly in ennea-type V that we see the highest
    expression of both ectomorphic constitution and cerebrotonic traits, among which Sheldon lists
    the following twenty as most distinctive:

    1. Restraint in Posture and Movement, Tightness
    2. Physiological Over-Response
    3. Overly Fast Reactions
    4. Love of Privacy
    5. Mental Over-intensity, Hyper-attentionality, Apprehensiveness
    6. Secretiveness of Feeling, Emotional Restraint
    7. Self-conscious Motility of the Eyes and Face
    8. Sociophobia
    9. Inhibited Social Address
    10. Resistance to Habit and Poor Routinizing
    11. Agoraphobia
    12. Unpredictability of Attitude
    13. Vocal Restraint and General Restraint of Noise
    14. Hypersensitivity to Pain
    15. Poor Sleep Habits, Chronic Fatigue

    16. Youthful Intentness of Manner and Appearance
    17. Vertical Mental Cleavage, Introversion
    18. Resistance to Alcohol and to other Depressant Drugs
    19. Need of Solitude when Troubled
    20. Orientation Toward the Later Periods of Life.

    Many of these traits express the over sensitive aspect of the temperament (Physiological
    Over-response,Hyper-attentionality,Apprehensiveness,ResistancetoHabitsand
    Unpredictability of Attitude), while others have to do with inhibition and with moving away
    from others, such as Restraint in Movement, Secretiveness, Sociophobia, Inhibited Social
    Address.

    Introversion, the gist of the variable, seems to constitute a convergence of both: a
    movement away from the outer to the inner, and sensitivity to inner experiences.

    Moving from the realm of temperamental dispositions to character proper, we observe that
    “compulsive” or “anankastic” character in the European usage corresponds to ennea-type V and
    not ennea-type I as the syndrome called “compulsive personality disorder” in the DSM III. This
    is immediately apparent from the opening lines of V.E. von Gebsattel in his pioneering essay
    on the existential analysis of the anankastic disposition:7 “What always fascinates us in
    encountering the compulsive person is the unpenetrated, perhaps impenetrable, quality of his
    being different. Seventy years of clinical work and scientific research have not altered this
    reaction. Kept alive by the contradiction between the intimate closeness of the presence of a
    fellow man and the strange remoteness of a mode of being completely different from our own,
    the a ect of psychiatric amazement never ceases.”

    Addressing himself to the anankastic psychopaths of Schneider and others through the
    study of a case, von Gebsattel observes a mode of being in the world that I have
    already alluded to in the description of avarice at the beginning of this chapter: a getting stuck,
    a blocking of the life process.8

    While Sheldon, more than Kretschmer even, undertakes to study a temperamental
    disposition—which may be the soil of a character but not a character itself—Karen Horney,
    speaking out of her psychotherapeutic experience, was to describe the crystallization of an
    interpersonal strategy: the neurotic disposition to move away from people and conflicts, the
    “solution of detachment.” Like Sheldon—who, in spite of the arbitrariness of his rating the
    components of temperaments from one to seven, may appear to be correct in stating that these
    may be found in different degrees and combinations—Horney might well have come to
    distinguish degrees and forms of expression of the tendency to move away from people. Yet it
    is at the same time clear that just as cerebrotonia does, sociophobia (in the sense of
    compulsive avoidance of sociability and relation) clearly culminates in the schizoid disposition,
    and it is the picture of ennea-type V that we gather from her discussion of the “solution of
    detachment.”

    I quote from Neurosis and Human Growth 9: “The third major solution of the intrapsychic
    conflict consists essentially in the neurotic’s withdrawing from the inner battlefield and
    declaring himself uninterested. If he can muster and maintain an attitude of ‘don’t care,’ he
    feels less bothered by his inner conflicts and can attain a semblance of inner peace. Since he
    can do this only by resigning from active living, ‘resignation’ seems a proper name for this
    solution”. “Resignation” she clarifies, “may have a constructive meaning. We can think of many
    older people who have recognized the intrinsic futility of ambition and success, who have
    mellowed by expecting and demanding less, and who through renunciation of nonessentials
    have become wiser. In many forms of religion or philosophy renunciation of nonessentials is
    advocated as one of the conditions for greater spiritual growth and fulfillment: give up the
    expression of personal will, sexual desires and cravings for worldly goods for the sake of being
    closer to God. Give up personal strivings and satisfactions for the sake of attaining the spiritual

    power which exists potentially in human beings. For the neurotic solution we are discussing
    here, however, resignation implies settling for a peace which is merely the absence of conflicts
    … His resignation therefore is a process of shrinking, of restricting, of curtailing life and
    growth,”

    The distinction she draws here is similar to a parallel one which we drew between
    genuine virtue and the false virtue of moralism. It is the case of an introversive, rather than an
    extraversive, form of religiosity, where neurotic renunciation stands in place of a healthy
    capacity to forgo gratification. Horney tells as that the basic characteristic of neurotic
    resignation is distinguished by an aura of restriction, of something that is avoided, that is not
    wanted or not done. “There is some resignation in every neurotic. What I shall describe here is
    a cross section of those for whom it has become the major solution.”

    She begins her description by telling us that “the direct expression of the neurotic having
    removed himself from the inner battlefield is his being an outlooker at himself and his life …
    Since detachment is a ubiquitous and prominent attitude of his, he is also an outlooker upon
    others. He lives as if he were sitting in the orchestra and observing a drama acted on the stage,
    and a drama which is most of the time not too exciting at that. Though he is not necessarily a
    good observer, he may be most astute. Even in the very first consultation he may, with the help
    of some pertinent questions, develop a picture of himself replete with a wealth of candid
    observation. But he usually adds that all this knowledge has not changed anything. Of course it
    has not—for none of his findings has been an experience for him. Being an outlooker at
    himself means just that: not actively participating in living and unconsciously refusing to do so.

    In analysis he tries to maintain the same attitude. He may be immensely interested, yet
    that interest may stay for quite a while at the level of a fascinating entertainment—and
    nothing changes.” Horney’s next observation is that “intimately connected with
    nonparticipation, is the absence of any serious striving for achievement and the aversion of
    e ort … he may compose beautiful music, paint pictures, write books—in his imagination.
    This is an alternative means of doing away with both aspiration and e ort. He may actually
    have good and original ideas on some subject, but the writing of a paper would require
    initiative and the arduous work of thinking the ideas through and organizing them. So the
    paper remains unwritten. He may have a vague desire to write a novel or a play, but wait for
    the inspiration to come. Then the plot would be clear and everything would flow from his
    pen. Also he is most ingenious at finding reasons for not doing things. How much good would
    be a book that had to be seated out in hard labor! And are not too many books written
    anyhow? Would not the concentration on one pursuit curtail other interests and thus narrow
    his horizon? Does not going into politics, or into any competitive field, spoil the character?”
    “This aversion to e ort may extend to all activities. It then brings about a complete inertia to
    which we shall return later. He may procrastinate over doing such simple things as writing a
    letter, reading a book, shopping. Or he may do them against inner resistance, slowly, listlessly,
    ineffectively. The mere prospect of unavoidable larger activities, such as moving or handling
    accumulated tasks in his job, may make him tired before he begins”…..”In analysis it appears
    that his goals are limited and again negative.

    “Analysis, he feels, should rid him of disturbing symptoms, such as awkwardness with
    strangers, fear of blushing or fainting in the street. Or perhaps analysis should remove one or
    another aspect of his inertia, such as his difficulty in reading. He may also have a broader
    vision of a goal which, in characteristically vague terms, he may call ‘serenity.’ This, however,
    means for him simply the absence of all troubles, irritations and upsets. And naturally
    whatever he hopes for should come easily, without pain or strain. The analyst should do the
    work. After all, is he not the expert? Analysis should be like going to a dentist who pulls out
    the tooth, or to a doctor who gives an injection: he is willing to wait patiently for the analyst
    to present the clue that will solve everything. It would be better though if the patient didn’t
    have to talk so much. The analyst should have some sort of X ray which would reveal the



    patient’s thoughts.” And she continues: “A step deeper and we come to the very essence of
    resignation: the restriction of wishes.” Though we may also speak of resignation in the
    cyclothymicennea-type IX—where we find extraverted resignation, resignation in relationship
    manifesting as abnegation—in the schizoid personality we find a resignation without
    participation, a resignation that goes as far as giving up contact.

    Says Horney: “He is particularly anxious not to get attached to anything to the extent of
    really needing it. Nothing should be so important for him that he could not do without it. It is
    all right to like a woman, a place in the country, or certain drinks, but one should not become
    dependent upon them. As soon as he becomes aware that a place, a person or a group of
    people means so much to him that its loss would be painful he tends to retract his feelings. No
    other person should ever have the feeling of being necessary to him or take the relationship
    for granted. If he suspects the existence of either attitude he tends to withdraw.”

    The most extreme expression of the pathology may be recognized in the catatonic
    syndrome in schizophrenia, for even though the latter constitutes an extreme complication of
    the schizoid way of being in the world, precisely because of this it allows us to see a caricature
    of some of its traits: unrelatedness, laconism, a seeming flight from the world in which
    personal world is relinquished, and a passivity in which the individual seems to surrender his
    life and body to others, and the characteristic symptom of exibilitas cerea in which the person
    adopts whatever position others manipulate the body into—a caricature of automatic
    obedience.

    Next in the gradient from psychosis to mental health is Kernberg’s “Narcissistic Personality
    Organization,” in which the negative self-image coexists not only with an idealized self-image,
    but with an orientation to seek recognition through intellectual or creative excellence.

    Better known today than Horney’s description of the “solution of detachment” are
    Fairbairn’s observations and reflections on schizoid character—all of them pertinent to our
    ennea-type V. In addition to being best known among those who have contemplated the
    schizoid syndrome, Fairbairn is known for his claim to the e ect that the schizoid phenomenon
    is the root of all psychopathology. This statement reflects, I think, his understanding of the
    existential issue of what I am calling “Being Scarcity”—or to use his vocabulary, “ego
    weakness” as the root of all psychopathology, and I think that it would have been more exact to
    leave it as that, for the schizoid personality is only the one in which this pervasive issue of the
    human condition makes itself most apparent. Just as the resigned ennea-type IX is blind to its
    blindness, ennea-type V is, in regard to the perception of ontic deficiency, what might be called
    a hypersensitive: structurally an introvert and usually an intuitive, he is most attuned to his
    internal experiences, and his avarice is interdependent with a sense of impoverishment at the
    spiritual level as well as at the psychological and the material.

    One of Fairbairn’s findings in his psychoanalysis of schizoid personalities was that beyond
    the analysis of superego pathology, schizoid patients were in need of understanding that, their
    process of detachment (in transference and in life) constitutes a defense “against a dreaded
    activation of a basic relationship in the transference characterized by a libidinal investment of
    the analyst experienced as a preoedipal, particularly oral, mother.”10 I have taken the
    statement above from Otto Kernberg’s summary, as also the following: “This libidinal
    investment seemed a major threat to these patients, a threat derived from the fear that their
    love of the object would be devastatingly destructive to the object.” Yet the schizoid’s fear is
    not only the fear of destroying the object, it is also one of losing oneself through an excessive
    love thirst, being engulfed through the intensity of dependency needs—as R.D. Laing has
    pointed out in The Divided Self .

    All in all, Fairbairn’s contention of the sense of negative expectation concerning mother
    love has contributed a cornerstone to our understanding of this personality, to which he
    contributed various other observations, such as noting “the chronic subjective experience of
    artificiality and of emotional detachment of schizoid personalities …. these patients’ attitude of
    omnipotence, objective isolation and detachment, and marked preoccupation with inner
    reality.”11

    Let me end by remarking that without mentioning the word avarice, Fairbairn’s
    understanding of the schizoid clearly involves the recognition that it involves an unwillingness
    of the person to invest herself in relationships and an avoidance of giving.

    In DSM III we find our type in the “schizoid personality disorder.”
    I quote the correspondent description:

    A. Emotional coldness and aloofness, and absence of warm, tender feelings for others.

    B. Indifference to praise or criticism and to the feelings of others.

    C. Close friendships with no more than one or two persons, including family members.

    D. No eccentricities of speech, behavior, or thought characteristic of Schizo-typal Personality
    Disorder.

    E. Not due to a psychotic disorder such as Schizophrenia or Paranoid Disorder.

    F. If under 18, does not meet the criteria for Schizoid Disorder of Childhood or
    Adolescence.

    There is a personality type in DSM III that is defined on the basis of a single trait, and
    which, because of this, may be a diagnosis ascribed to more than one of the characters in this
    book: the passive-aggressive personality. It’s resistance to external demands is most typical of
    ennea-type V, yet is also a trait that may be found in ennea-types IV, VI, and IX. Theodore
    Millon, who was on the committee that originated DSM III, has proposed both a change in
    name of passive-aggressive, and a description of the syndrome that takes into account other
    characteristics, such as “frequently irritable and erratically moody, a tendency to report being
    easily frustrated and angry, discontented self-image … disgruntled and disillusioned with life;
    interpersonal ambivalence,” as evidence in a struggle between being independently acquiescent
    and assertively independent; and the use of unpredictable and sulking behaviors to provoke
    discomfort in others.

    On the whole, I get the impression passive-aggressive is one more complication of ennea-
    type V, and find corroboration for this impression in the resemblance that Millon 12 points out
    between this passive-aggressive personality and compulsive personality, beyond their obvious
    contrast (a similarity within contrasts that I have already commented upon), “both share an
    intense and deeply rooted ambivalence about themselves and others. Compulsives deal with
    this ambivalence by vigorously suppressing the conflicts it engenders, and they appear as a
    consequence, to be well controlled and single-minded in purpose; their behavior is
    perfectionistic, scrupulous, orderly, and quite predictable. In contrast, the passive-aggressive,
    referred to in Millon’s theory as the ‘active-ambivalent,’ fails either to submerge or to otherwise
    resolve these very same conflicts; as a consequence, the ambivalence of the passive-aggressives
    intrudes constantly into their everyday life, resulting in indecisiveness, uctuating attitudes,
    oppositional behaviors and emotions, and a general erraticism and unpredictability. They
    cannot decide whether to adhere to the desires of others as a means of gaining comfort and
    security or to turn to themselves for these gains, whether to be obediently dependent on others
    or defiantly resistant and independent of them, whether to take the initiative in mastering their
    world or to sit idly by, passively awaiting the leadership of others.”

    Unlike the case of most of our character types I find that the shadow of ennea-type V
    appears in more than one of Jung’s descriptions of introverted types.13 Speaking of the
    introverted thinking type, for instance, which as we shall see corresponds mostly to our ennea-
    type VI,14 it is possible to find some schizoid characteristics, such as “his amazing
    unpracticalness and horror of publicity” or the observation that “he lets himself be brutalized
    and exploited in the most ignominious way if only he can be left in peace to pursue his
    ideas.” Also it is most typical of ennea-type V that “he is a poor teacher, because all the time

    he is teaching, his thought is occupied with the material itself and not with its presentation.”
    Also in the description of the introverted feeling type, which will be quoted in reference to our
    ennea-type IX, traces of ennea-type V overlap, such as “expressions of feeling therefore remain
    niggardly, and the other person has a permanent sense of being undervalued …”

    In spite of these traces of ennea-type V character in the above-mentioned psychological
    types of Jung, it is definitely in the introverted sensation type that we find the best match for
    our character. We read, for instance, that:

    “He may be conspicuous for his calmness and passivity, or for his rational self-control.
    This peculiarity, which often leads a superficial judgment astray, is really due to his
    unrelatedness to objects.”
    Or:
    “Such a type can easily make one question: why one should exist at all, or why objects in
    general should have any justification for their existence since everything essential still goes on
    happening without them.”

    Scanning the descriptions given by Keirsey and Bates 15 of the sixteen pro les obtained
    through a test derived from the Myers-Briggs, I find ennea-type V psychology reflected in that
    of the “INTP”—i.e., the introvert who has a predominance of intuition over sensation, thinking
    over feeling, and perception over judgment. I quote some of their statements:

    “The world exists primarily to be understood. Reality is trivial, a mere arena for proving
    ideas… .

    “The INTP’s should not… . be asked to work out the implementation or application of
    their models to the real world. The INTP is the architect of a system and leaves it to others to
    be the builder and the applicator …

    “They are not good at clinical tasks and are impatient with routine details. They prefer to
    work quietly, without interruption, and often alone.

    “They are not likely to welcome constant social activity or disorganization in the home …
    INTP’s are, however, willing, complaint and easy to live with, although somewhat forgetful of
    appointments, anniversaries, and the rituals of daily living - unless reminded. They may have
    difficulties expressing their emotions verbally, and the mate of an INTP may believe that
    he/she is somewhat taken for granted …”

    In the homeopathic tradition the characteristics of ennea-type V may be found in people
    with personalities associated with Sepia, which is the remedy claimed to benefit them. 16 The
    homeopathic is made from the fresh ink of the cuttlefish—a creature who lives alone rather
    than in a group, lives in the crevices of rocks, and ejects ink for camouflage when seeking
    escape or stalking its prey. Sepia is associated with women, either withdrawn, dissatisfied, or
    contented in a career. One instance is that of women worn out with the cares of home and
    children, and not seeming to have the energy for it. Coulter remarks:

    “All manifestations of love—marital, parental, filial, and even close friendship—are a drain
    on her reserves of energy and an obstacle to her need for a certain amount of privacy and
    independence.” She quotes Kent as remarking of them “love does not go forth into affection.”
    And comments “love is not absent, but the manifestation of love is benumbed and cannot be
    expressed.” She further quotes Hering as finding Sepia people “averse to company” and
    elaborates: “she does not want to go out, largely because of the physical e ort which sociability
    demands.” The dominant feeling is one of indifference—the wish of wanting to “crawl into her
    lair and be left alone, not touched, approached or bothered.” Thus there is not only an
    emotional unresponsiveness but a seeking to escape from close emotional ties and obligations.
    The wish to emancipate herself from the “burden of love” may be expressed in personality or
    a profession.

    Coulter observes that the type can be “spirited, creative and attractive, but even when
    socially outgoing she may still lack warm sympathy” … “she may appear deficient in feminine
    receptivity and the finer shades of emotional responsiveness.” Sepia feels too stressful an
    impingement of life on its independent and private meanings, shown characteristically in a
    straightforward negativity “whether due to an inability to conceal her nature, a need to feel
    rejected, excessive candor, or simply a complete lack of interest in producing a good
    impression.”

    Also evocative of ennea-type V is the personality picture associated in homeopathic
    medicine with Silica. I quote from Coulter: 17

    “ T h e inflexibility of flint is manifested on the mental plane in Silica’s ‘obstinacy’
    (Boenninghausen) … He is not aggressive or argumentative, will smile, remain pleasant, and
    appear mild enough—but still proceeds as he deems best… .”

    She describes a child who dislikes boarding school but will only use “passive persuasion”
    methods with his parents. She also describes the picture of a young adolescent girl or young
    woman, to whom it is impossible to give advice or even give a present. “… This is not from an
    overall negativeness but from rigidity of views. The girl (or boy) can be just as rigid and
    selective in her judgment of people and thus has particular difficulty finding friends, and later,
    an acceptable partner in life. Persons who remain single, not from aversion to the marital state
    but from being too exacting—no one is ever quite suitable—will often exhibit Silica
    characteristics.”

    Coulter compares a Silica individual with the “stalk of wheat,” which is delicate and
    yielding and yet provided with a still outer covering. In personality this relative firmness
    corresponds to an intellectual stability and a power of concentration, while the individual lacks
    vitality and “he may expend so much energy coping with his physical environment that little is
    left over for enjoyable living.”

    Also fitting the picture of ennea-type V is the observation of forgetfulness and abstraction
    if n Silica personalities, their faint-heartedness, lack of courage, and the refusal to shoulder
    responsibility. Coulter quotes Whitmont’s likening of the Silica individual to “a timid delicate
    white mouse which still fiercely maintains the integrity of its own small territory.”

    3. Trait Structure

    Retentiveness

    As usual, it is possible to find in this character a cluster of descriptors corresponding to
    the dominant passion. In it, along with avarice, belong such characteristics as lack of generosity
    in matters of money, energy and time, and also meanness—with its implication of an
    insensitivity to the needs of others. Among the characteristics of retentiveness it is important to
    take note of a holding on to the ongoing content of the mind, as if wanting to elaborate or
    extract the last drop of significance—a characteristic that results in a typical jerkiness of mental
    function, a subtle form of rigidity that militates against the individual’s openness to
    environmental stimulation and to what is emerging, the transition of the present mental state
    to the next. This is the characteristic which von Gebsattel has pointed out in “ananchastics” as a
    “getting stuck.”18

    We may say that the implicit interpersonal strategy of holding on implies a preference for
    self-sufficiency in regard to resources instead of approaching others. This, in turn, involves a
    pessimistic outlook in regard to the prospect of either receiving care and protection or having
    the power to demand or take what is needed.

    Not Giving

    Also the avoidance of commitment can be considered as an expression of not giving since
    it amounts to an avoidance of giving in the future. In this avoidance of commitment, however,
    there is also another aspect: the need of type V individuals to be completely free, unbound,

    unobstructed, in possession of the fullness of themselves—a trait representing a composite of
    avarice and an over-sensitivity to engulfment (to be discussed later). It may be pointed out that
    hoarding implies not just avarice, but a projection of avarice into the future—a protection
    against being left without. Here, again, the trait represents a derivation not only from avarice,
    but also from the intense need of autonomy of the character (see below).

    Pathological Detachment

    Given the reciprocity of giving and taking in human relationships, a compulsion to not
    give (surely the echo of perceiving in early life that it goes against survival to give more than is
    received) can hardly be sustained except at the expense of relationship itself—as if the
    individual considered: “If the only way to hold on to the little I have is to distance myself from
    others and their needs or wants, that is what I will do.”

    An aspect of pathological detachment is the characteristic aloofness of ennea-type V;
    another, the quality of being a “loner,” i.e., one accustomed to being solitary and who, out of
    resignation in regard to relating, does not feel particularly lonely. Seclusiveness is, of course,
    part of the broader trait of detachment, since it requires emotional detachment and repression
    of the need to relate, to be in isolation. The difficulty that type V individuals have in making
    friends may be considered also here, for an important aspect of this difficulty is the lack of
    motivation to relate.

    Though it is easy to see how detachment can arise as a complication of retentiveness, the
    giving up of relationship is interdependent with the inhibition of needs—for it could hardly
    be compatible to give up relationships and to be needy, and thus giving up relationship already
    implies a relinquishment or minimization of needs. While resignation in regard to one’s own
    needs is practically a corollary of detachment, the inhibition of the expression of anger in this
    character involves not only resignation in regard to love needs, but also the fear that is present
    in the schizoid personality in virtue of its position next to the left corner of the enneagram.

    Fear of engulfment

    The fear and avoidance of being “swallowed up by others” might be a corollary of the
    avoidance of relationships, yet not only this, for it is also the expression of a half-conscious
    perception of one’s own suppressed need to relate, and (as Fairbairn has emphasized) a fear
    of potential dependency. The great sensitivity to interference and interruption of ennea-type V
    individuals is not only the expression of a detached attitude, but also a function of the
    person’s proneness to interrupt herself in the face of external demands and perceived needs of
    others. In other words, a great sensitivity to interference goes hand-in hand with an over-
    docility, in virtue of which the individual interferes all too easily with her own spontaneity,
    with her preferences, and with acting in a way coherent with her needs in the presence of
    others. Also, in light of this over-docility (understandable as a by-product of a strong repressed
    love need) we can understand the particular emphasis in aloneness in ennea-type V. To the
    extent that the relationship entails alienation from one’s own preferences and authentic
    expression there arises an implicit stress and the need to recover from it: a need to find oneself
    again in aloneness.

    Autonomy

    The great need for autonomy is an understandable corollary of giving up relationships.
    Together with developing the “distance machinery” (to use H.S. Sullivan’s expression), the
    individual needs to be able to do without external supplies. One who cannot get to others to
    satisfy his desires needs to build up his resources, stocking them up, so to speak, inside his
    ivory tower. Closely related to autonomy and yet a trait on its own is the idealization of

    autonomy which reinforces the repression of desires and underlies a life philosophy much like
    that which Hesse puts in Siddhartha’s mouth: “I can think, I can wait, I can fast.”19

    Feelinglessness

    Though I have already alluded to a repression of needs, and mentioned the suppression of
    anger of ennea-type V, it seems desirable to group these descriptors along with others in a
    more generalized trait of feelinglessness. It has to do with the loss of awareness of feelings and
    even an interference with the generation of feeling, which results from the avoidance of
    expression and action. This characteristic makes some individuals indifferent, cold, empathic,
    and apathetic. Also anhedonia might be placed here, though the greater or lesser incapacity to
    enjoy pleasure is a more complex phenomenon: while ennea-type I is aversive to pleasure,
    ennea-type V simply appears as having a diminished capacity to experience it. In this is
    implicit, however, the fact that pleasure does not rank high in the scale of values of this
    character for it is postponed to more “urgent” drives, such as the drive to keep a safe distance
    from others and the drive for autonomy.

    Postponement of Action

    We may say that to act is to invest oneself, to put one’s energies into use, which goes
    against the grain of retentive orientation of type V. Yet, more generally, action can not be
    considered as separate from interaction, so when the drive to relate is low the drive to do is
    concomitantly lessened. On the other hand, action requires an enthusiasm for something, a
    presence of feelings—which is not the case in the apathetic individual. To do is also something
    like showing one’s self to the world, for one’s actions manifest one’s intentions. One who
    wants to keep his intentions hidden (as the avaricious typically does) will also inhibit his
    activity on these grounds and develop, instead of a spontaneous movement and initiative, an
    excessive restraint. The characteristic trait of procrastination may be regarded as a hybrid
    between negativism and the avoidance of action.

    Cognitive Orientation

    Ennea-type V is not only introversive (as is implied in moving away from relationships)
    but also typically intellectual (as introverts generally tend to be). Through a predominantly
    cognitive orientation the individual may seek substitute satisfaction—as in the replacement of
    living through reading. Yet the symbolic replacement of life is not the only form of expression
    of intense thinking activity: another aspect is the preparation for life—a preparation that is
    intense to the extent that the individual never feels ready enough. In the elaboration of
    perceptions as preparation for (inhibited) action, the activity of abstraction is particularly
    striking, type V individuals lean towards the activity of classification and organization, and not
    only display a strong attraction towards the process of ordering experience, but tend to dwell
    in abstractions while at the same time avoiding concreteness. This avoidance of concreteness, in
    turn, is linked to the type’s hiddenness: only the results of one’s perceptions are offered to the
    world, not its raw material.

    Related to abstraction and the organization of experience is an interest in science and a
    curiosity in regard to knowledge. Also the inhibition of feelings and of action, along with the
    emphasis of cognition gives rise to the characteristic of being a mere witness of life, a non-
    attached yet keen observer of it, who in this very keenness seems to be seeking to replace life
    through its understanding.

    Sense of emptiness



    Naturally, the suppression of feelings and the avoidance of life (in the interest of avoiding
    feelings) constitutes the avoidance of action along with an objective impoverishment of
    experience. We may understand the sense of sterility, depletion, and meaninglessness that are
    typical of type V as the result of an objective impoverishment in the life of relatedness, feeling,
    and doing. The prevalence of such a sense of inner vacuum in modern times (when other
    symptomatic neuroses have been relatively eclipsed by the “existential ones”) reflects the
    proportion of ennea-type V individuals in the consulting rooms of psychotherapists today. One
    psychodynamic consequence of this existential pain of feeling faintly existing is the attempt to
    compensate for the impoverishment of feeling and active life through the intellectual life (for
    which the individual is usually well endowed constitutionally) and through being a curious
    and/or critical “outsider.” Another more fundamental consequence, however, is the fact of
    “ontic insufficiency” in stimulating the dominant passion itself—as is the case in each one of
    the character structures.

    Guilt

    Ennea-type V (along with type IV, at the bottom of the enneagram) is characterized by
    guilt proneness—even though in type IV, it is more intensely felt—”buffered” by a generalized
    distancing from feelings.

    Guilt manifests in a vague sense of inferiority, however, in a vulnerability to intimidation,
    in a sense of awkwardness and self-consciousness, and, most typically, in the very characteristic
    hiddenness of the person. Though guilt can be understood in light of the strong superego of
    type V, I believe that it is also a consequence of the early implicit decision of the person to
    withdraw love (as a response to the lovelessness of the outer world). The cold detachment of
    type V may thus be regarded as an equivalent to the anger of the vindictive type VIII, who sets
    out to go it alone and fights for his needs in a hostile world. His moving away from people is
    an equivalent to moving against, as if, in the impossibility to express anger, he annihilated the
    other in his inner world. In embracing an attitude of loveless disregard, he thus feels a guilt
    that is not only comparable to that of the tough-minded bully, but more “visible” since in the
    bully it is defensively denied, while here it manifests as a pervasive and Kafkaesque guilt
    proneness.

    High Super-ego

    The trait of high super-ego may be regarded as interdependent with guilt: the superego’s
    demanding results in guilt and is a compensatory response to it (not unlike the reaction
    formation involved in the high super-ego of ennea-type I). Like the type I individual, type V
    feels driven, and demands much out of himself as well as of others. It may be said that ennea-
    type I is more externally perfectionistic, ennea-type V internally so. Also, the former holds on
    to a relative identification with his super-ego, while the latter identifies with his inner
    “underdog.”

    Negativism

    A source trait related to the perception of the needs of others as binding, and also a form
    of rebellion against one’s own (superegoic) demands, is that which involves, beyond an
    avoidance of interference or influence, a wish to subvert the perceived demands of others and
    of oneself. Here we can see again a factor underlying the characteristic postponement of action,
    for sometimes this involves a wish not to do that which is perceived as a should, a wish not to
    “give” something requested or expected, even when the source of the request is internal rather
    than societal. A manifestation of such negativism is that anything that the individual chooses to
    do on the basis of true desire is likely to become, once an explicit project, a “should” that
    evokes a loss of motivation through internal rebellion.

    Hypersensitivity

    Though we have surveyed the insensitive aspect of type V, we also need to include its
    characteristic hypersensitivity, manifest in traits ranging from a low tolerance of pain to fear of
    rejection.

    It is my impression that this trait is more basic (in the sense of being psychodynamically
    fundamental) than that of feelinglessness and that, as Kretschmer 20 has proposed, emotional
    dullness sets in precisely as a defense against the hypersensitive characteristic. The
    hypersensitive characteristic of ennea-type V involves a sense of weakness, a vulnerability and
    also a sensitivity in dealing with the world of objects and even persons. To the extent that the
    individual is not autistically disconnected from the perception of others, he is gentle, soft and
    harmless. Even in his dealing with the inanimate environment this is true: he does not want to
    disturb the way things are; he would like, so to speak, to walk without harming the grass on
    which he treads. Though this hypersensitive characteristic may be ascribed, together with the
    cognitive orientation and introversive moving away from people, to the cerebrotonic
    background of the type, we can also understand it as partly derived from the experience of
    half-conscious psychological pain: the pain of guilt, the pain of unacknowledged loneliness, the
    pain of emptiness. It seems to me that an individual who feels full and substantial can stand
    more pain than one who feels empty.

    Lack of pleasure and of the feeling of insignificance, thus, would seem to influence the
    limit of pain that can be accepted, and hypersensitivity itself, no doubt, stands as a factor
    behind the individual’s decision to avoid the pain of frustrating relationships through the
    choice of isolation and autonomy.

    4. Defense Mechanisms

    Though it is possible to speak of reaction formation in connection with the super-egoic
    aspect of type V (i.e., the good boyish or good girlish, not greedy and not angry characteristics)
    it is not reaction formation that predominates in type V character—but isolation.

    Of course, what is meant by isolation in this technical sense of the word is not the
    behavioral isolation of a schizoid in the social world—and yet there seem to be some relation
    between interpersonal isolation and the defense mechanism called isolation in Psychoanalysis,
    i.e., between the interruption of the relationship with others and an interruption of the
    relationship with oneself or with the representation of others in one’s inner world.

    Anna Freud describes isolation as a condition in which the instinctive drives are separated
    from their context, while at the same time persist in awareness. Matte-Blanco,21 speaking of
    painful traumatic experiences, says that it can be observed in cases when the intellectual
    content of what has occurred is isolated from the intense emotion that was experienced,
    “which is coolly recollected by the patient as if it referred to something that happened to
    somebody else, and does not matter to him”. In these cases, he adds, “it is not only the
    emotional content that is isolated, but the connection bearing within the intellectual content
    itself, which results in the loss of the true and deep meaning of the traumatic experience and
    of the instinctive impulses that have been at play in relation to it. The result of this is, then,
    the same as in repression through amnesia.”

    The concept of isolation has been applied to the process of separating an experience from
    the contextual horizon of experience through the interpolation of a mental vacuum
    immediately after. The symptom of blocking in schizophrenia may be said to correspond to an
    extreme form of self-interruption through a sort of stopping of mental activity. This process
    was called by Freud motor isolation and interpreted as a derivative of normal concentration
    (in which also the irruption of thoughts or mental states is prevented). Matte-Blanco comments
    further: “In the normal process of directing the stream of thoughts the ego may be said to

    engage much isolation work.”

    The mechanism of ego splitting is closely related to that of isolation and just as
    prominent in type V. While splitting in the psyche is a general characteristic in neurosis (and is
    implicit in the separation of super-ego, ego and id), ego-splitting proper—in which
    contradictory thoughts, roles, or attitudes coexist in the conscious psyche without awareness of
    contradiction—is more prominent in type V than in any other, and explains not only the
    simultaneity of grandiosity and inferiority but also the simultaneity of positive and negative
    perceptions of others. We may say that isolation is a core of type V character in that the
    characteristic detachment not only from people but more generally from the world (including
    one’s own body) depends on the inactivation of feelings and also corresponds to an
    avoidance of the situation in which feelings normally arise: an interruption of the life process
    in the service of feeling-avoidance.

    The incongruence of aloofness with the ordinary human need for contact is maintained
    through a dulling of the emotional life; at other times in the more hypersensitive variety of
    individual, it exists side by side with intense feelings, which appear in greater association with
    the aesthetic and the abstract than with the interpersonal world. Also the avoidance of action in
    type V may be seen in light of an avoidance of feeling and of the isolation mechanism, and
    would deserve the name of motoric isolation better than the interruption of thoughts and the
    disturbance of gestalt perception through mental blocking.

    Where there is remoteness not only from others but also from the world, action is
    unnecessary, and conversely, the avoidance of action supports the avoidance of relationship.

    As in other characters here too we may ask ourselves whether the mechanism of isolation
    has arisen in connection with a particularly avoided realm of experience, so that its typical
    operation matches a typical repressed content. The answer seems to be given by the enneagram
    structure itself, for once more we may understand that the attitude of type V is most opposite
    to that of type VIII, and it would seem that its over-control, diminished vitality, and disposition
    not to invest itself in any particular course of action or relationship entails a corresponding
    taboo on intensity and fear of potential destructiveness. Type V is the very negation of lusty
    superabundance, and thus we are invited to think about the mechanism of splitting as arisen
    from an individual’s way of protecting himself against a primitive and impulsive response to
    the environment. His skill in separating himself conceptually and analytically considering the
    aspects of a situation allows him to see such situations as something unrelated to personal
    needs—and thus leads to the restriction of personal needs that goes hand-in-hand with avarice
    in self-spending.

    5. Etiological and Further Psychodynamic Remarks 22

    As a group ennea-type V individuals constitute the most ectomorphic in the enneagram,
    and it is reasonable to think that a cerebrotonic disposition has contributed to the “choice” of a
    moving away as a solution to the problems of life. Occasionally the individual has memories
    of fear related to a sense of physical fragility.

    What is most striking in regard to the form of love deprivation in the story of ennea-type
    V is early onset, so that the child never had an occasion to establish a deep bond with its
    mother. Unlike ennea-type IV whose emotional reaction is that of mourning a loss, ennea-type
    V feels an emptiness and does not know what he is missing. The syndrome of hospitalism
    described by Spitz—in which children provided with nourishment but not with maternal care
    may languish to the point of death—seems emblematic of what happens more subtly in the
    aloof adult who suffers from apathy and a depression without sadness.

    The situation of mother deprivation (literal or psychological) may be complicated by a
    lack of alternative relationships when the child is the only one in the family and the father is
    either distant or the mother jealously interferes with the child’s relationship to him.
    Unrelatedness to others in such instances stems from the lack of a deep relationship experience

    at home.

    Another element often encountered in the childhood of ennea-type V is that of a
    “devouring,” invasive, or excessively manipulative mother.23 Before such a mother the child
    protects his inner life by withdrawing and learns to be secretive.

    These and other experiences contribute in the story of the ennea-type V individual to a
    sense that it is better to go it alone in life, that people are not loving or that it is “bad
    business” to relate to others for what love they offer is manipulative and entails the
    expectation of receiving too much in exchange. Thus life is organized around not needing
    others and saving one’s resources.

    As is well known in connection with schizophrenia research, schizoid persons often have a
    schizoid parent. I know somebody in whom both parents were schizoid: “They formed a
    couple that was like a capsule, a world apart.” She says, “I lacked nothing but I never knew
    what was happening at home. When I was little my mother jokingly answered when I called
    her, after not responding for a while: ‘I?, I am not your mother!’ “

    No less common, however, is the antecedent of a type VI parent. A young man with an
    ennea-type VI father and an ennea-type IV mother reports: “I felt a little caged in, the best was
    outside, my greatest interest has been to run away, to be far from my parents. I had a di cult
    time with my parents because they constrained me too much, and my solution was to escape
    inwardly. Even when I was able to move away outwardly I continued to do so.

    “If I had learned to disappear or not be there or the idea of abandonment, I sometimes
    wonder if it started when the doctor abandoned me when I was to be born. The nurses said, he
    just left for lunch and they tied my mother’s legs together. Another abandonment, maybe I
    learned from was, as a baby in the crib, my parents left the phone o the hook and they
    worked in a restaurant and they said, ‘We listened sometimes to see if you were crying or not
    and then we’d come’.”

    As in the case of ennea-type VIII, ennea-type V seems to have given up in the search for
    love. To the extent that his dependency needs are only under control, however, he longs for a
    love that is expressed through the willingness to leave him alone, without demands, deception,
    or manipulation. The vehemence of the ideal militates—as in other instances—against its
    earthly realization.

    6. Existential Psychodynamics

    While it makes much sense to view the schizoid disposition as a withdrawal in the face of
    assumed lovelessness, and it is useful to take into account the fact that the sense of lovelessness
    continues to exist not only as a “phantom pain” but also as a result of the fact that his basic
    distrust leads him to invalidate the positive feelings of others towards him as manipulative—I
    think that a whole new therapeutic vista opens up when we take into account the
    repercussions of an emptiness which the individual inadvertently creates precisely through the
    attempt to fill it up. Thus we may say that it is not just mother love that the adult type V is
    needing right now, but true aliveness, the sense of existing, a plenitude that he sabotages
    moment after moment through the compulsive avoidance of life and relationship.

    Thus it is not in receiving love that lies his greatest hope (particularly since he cannot
    trust other people’s feelings) but in his own ability to love and relate.

    Just as inwardness is animated by a thirst for enrichment and ends up in impoverishment,
    so also a misplaced search for being perpetuates ontic obscuration. The self-absorbed schizoid
    would remove himself away from the interfering world; yet in the act of thus removing
    himself, he also removes himself from himself.

    An implicit assumption in ennea-type V is that being is to be found only beyond the
    realm of becoming: away from the body, away from the feelings, away from thinking itself.
    (And so it is—yet with a “but”; for it can only be perceived by one who is not avoiding the

    body, the feelings, and the mind).

    While it is easy to understand grasping as a complication of ontic thirst, it may be well to
    dwell on how grasping is also—together with avoidance—at its source. The process is
    conveyed by the story of Midas, who in his wish for riches, wished that whatever he touched
    turned into gold. The unanticipated tragic consequences of his wish—the turning into gold of
    his daughter—symbolizes, better than conceptual thinking alone can convey, the process by
    which reaching for the most valuable can entail a dehumanization—and reaching for the
    extraordinary, an impoverishment in the capacity to value the ordinary.

    1 p. 595, The Canterbury Tales, modern English version by J.U. Nicholson (New York: Garden City Books, 1934).

    2 See von Gebsattel’s analysis below.

    3 As I have pointed out in the discussion of ennea-type I, I think that what they have in common have caused them to be

    confused at times—notably in the observations of Freud, Abraham and Reich on anal and compulsive characters. While

    the ennea-type I individual is frugal, a consciously generous intent makes it quite di erent in regard to economic

    avoidance of e ort and the loss of freedom or autonomy involved in work commitment.

    4op. cit.

    5 Kretschmer, E, Korpebau und Charakter (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1925).

    6 Sheldon, William, op. cit.

    7 Von Gebsattel, V.E., “The World of the Compulsive” in Existence: A New Dimension in Psychiatry and Psychology,

    behavior from ennea-type V, where the main motive in stinginess is the fear of remaining without resources and the

    edited by Rollo May (New York: Basic Books, 1959).

    8 Von Gebsattel, V.E., op. cit.

    9 Horney, Karen, Neurosis and Human Growth (New York; W.W. Norton & Co., 1990).

    10 Fairbairn, W.R.D., quoted in Otto Kernberg, An Object-Relations Theory of the Personality, (New York: Basic Books,

    1952).

    11 Fairbairn, W.R.D., Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism (New York: Jason Aronson, Inc., 1985).

    12 op.cit.

    13 Jung, C. G., op. cit.

    14A correspondence con rmed by the illustrative reference to Kant and Nietzsche.

    15 op cit.

    16 Quoted by permission of the author, Catherine R. Coulter, all excerpts on Sepia are from pp. 125-139, Portraits of

    Homoeopathic Medicines, Vol. 1 (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1986).

    17 Reprinted with permission, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 67-106.

    18 Op.Cit.

    19 Hesse, Herman, Siddhartha (New York; New Directions, 1951).

    20 Kretchmer, Ernst, Physique and Character: An Investigation of the Nature of Constitution and the Theory of

    Temperament (New York: Cooper Square, 1936).

    21 Matte-Blanco, Ignacio, Psicologia Dinamica (Santiago: Estudios de Ed. de le Universidad de Chile, 1955).

    22 In Siever’s and Kendlers chapter on dealing with the schizoid personality in Cooper et al.’s Psychiatry the authors

    say: “Genetic studies suggest that genetic isolation in childhood and adulthood may be observed in the life of

    schizophrenics, although results are not uniform in this regard.” He quotes the study claiming that there is “a

    constitutionally determined antagonia and a lack of pleasure derived from interpersonal relationship.” Also they quote

    overwhelmed by others.”

    evidence of there being “inadequate or unreliable mothering, leading to a sense of isolation and a feeling of being

    23 What used to be called a schizophrenogenic mother.
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  2. #2
    Type 5w6

    @Promethea , @timeless : Request for sticky, please.

  3. #3
    Type 5w4

    Disgustingly accurate, as it should be.
    Strelok, Andorem, wk05 and 1 others thanked this post.

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  5. #4
    Type 5w4

    Oh wow, this basically just described everything I have been feeling since I woke up this morning. Like, literally word for word. I don't know how I feel about all of this.
    Andorem and sleepyhead thanked this post.

  6. #5

    Sometimes I have trouble with the 5 descriptions that focus strictly on the "feelinglessness" of the type, but this one puts it into the hypersensitivity context that rings more true for me...
    Mizmar, Andorem, Strelok and 4 others thanked this post.

  7. #6
    Type 8w9

    Quote Originally Posted by lolthevoidlol View Post
    Sometimes I have trouble with the 5 descriptions that focus strictly on the "feelinglessness" of the type, but this one puts it into the hypersensitivity context that rings more true for me...
    I find a big problem in general is that terminology such as "detachment" and "feelinglessness" are often used without providing a good context of what they mean. I thought Naranjo was vague, especially compared to how much he devoted to the envy of 4 in the 4 chapter.
    Mizmar, Queen Qualia and Ellis Bell thanked this post.

  8. #7
    Type 9w8

    This is easily my favorite description of the type 5. I did not relate to the hypersensitivity aspect until I read this, where hypersensitivity is in essence a low tolerance for pain due to emptiness. For one who experiences little pleasure (anhedonia), many things which others consider worth the trouble are dropped by the 5. It is not that things are more painful, but that the scales are tipped in favor of pain.
    Queen Qualia, lolthevoidlol, wk05 and 3 others thanked this post.

  9. #8
    Type 6w7


    I find I relate to this a lot -- but, unusually, I think it's more subconscious of a relation than a purposeful one, like I usually am. I especially to the whole parent thing, and also that beginning portion about denying oneself and how it feels good until you realize how empty it is: the introverted moralizing instead of the extroverted moralizing; also, I have always prided myself on my lack of "neediness" compared to my sisters, only to realize in my newly adulthoodedness, I ought to have been more needy then so I wouldn't have to be now.

    But yeah, the parent portion: my mom is an ENTP and a 6, I think, and I'm an ISFP. Being the youngest of 4 busy children did create problems with ever bonding deeply; and I found her lack of knowing or understanding her own emotions very disturbing. She was (is!) a very engulfing sort of person, I love her deeply, but it's kinda hard to connect sometimes. Very draining to connect, but at the same times, it's worth it in the long run, and therefore fulfilling, too.

    More contradictory 5 feelings.



    Edit: oh, and I always have felt guilty for wanting a relationship with my dad, because of her and because of my general not wanting to appear needy or dependent.
    sleepyhead thanked this post.

  10. #9
    Type 5

    "18. Resistance to Alcohol..."
    It's because I'm five?!

    "Sense of emptiness
    Naturally, the suppression of feelings and the avoidance of life (in the interest of avoiding
    feelings) constitutes the avoidance of action along with an objective impoverishment of
    experience. We may understand the sense of sterility, depletion, and meaninglessness that are
    typical of type V as the result of an objective impoverishment in the life of relatedness, feeling,
    and doing. The prevalence of such a sense of inner vacuum in modern times (when other
    symptomatic neuroses have been relatively eclipsed by the “existential ones”) reflects the
    proportion of ennea-type V individuals in the consulting rooms of psychotherapists today. One
    psychodynamic consequence of this existential pain of feeling faintly existing is the attempt to
    compensate for the impoverishment of feeling and active life through the intellectual life (for
    which the individual is usually well endowed constitutionally) and through being a curious
    and/or critical “outsider.” Another more fundamental consequence, however, is the fact of
    “ontic insufficiency” in stimulating the dominant passion itself—as is the case in each one of
    the character structures."
    I don't feel emptiness. Though, nowadays we have internet!

    In embracing an attitude of loveless disregard, he thus feels a guilt
    that is not only comparable to that of the tough-minded bully, but more “visible” since in the
    bully it is defensively denied, while here it manifests as a pervasive and Kafkaesque guilt
    proneness.
    No, not at all. My biggest guilt trips are because of my empathy, which I suspect may be exaggerated. I feel horrible knowing I may caused someone trouble or suffering. Especially suffering. It's something I can't rationalise, it's pure feeling.

    I think they almost got it right, but projected something. Or maybe it works different for different fives. Impossibility to express anger? I don't think so. Rather not being able to change things.
    I still think there may be much more hypersensitivity about five's detachment than people tend to think. I'm sometimes ashamed how childish and unrealistic my attitudes towards others can be. The hypersensitivity part is pretty good, but biased.

    I also don't find anything true in the part about isolation in defense mechanisms, maybe except this 'fear of potential destructiveness'.

    Existential Psychodynamics - again biased, probably from dealing with unhappy, mentally sick patients. That's the thing that really pushes me away from enneagram literature and also other psychology, acting like everybody needed a therapist to be happy. Well, people who sell Amway products also tell you your life is incomplete without them. ;)
    Bluity, Dyidia and Mizmar thanked this post.

  11. #10
    Type 5w4

    A long and technical piece, bit difficult to read for a non-native speaker. The description feels quite accurate to me, I relate to it a lot. It was good information and I took some notes for myself, but the text in general feels too disempowering for me. What a sad picture it paints of me as a lonely, loveless and powerless person alone in his head, terrified to come out and join the reality. It was depressing, I feel more hopeless now and less motivated to try to change anything. I need to read something that gives me some practical advice and some hope.

    As I was reading, I was thinking about the practical value of this text - what can I do about my fiveness? It doesn't give any advice but it seems to confirm the two main ideas I have about improving my life: 1) to try to gain contact with reality by trying to get a contact with my body (by practicing yoga, for example) and 2) to try to believe in love. My childhood lovelessness developed probably because my mom is not too expressive about her feelings and I somehow learned to withdraw without asking any questions or making demands. But how could you deal with this childhood lovelessness in your adulthood? Or even can you, or maybe it's something that is lost for me for ever? I figured that I must atleast try to believe she loves me, what else could I do.


     
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